Литература и русский язык: Курс лингвистики (Экзаменационные вопросы WinWord), Сочинение

Morphological and genealogical classifications of languages.

Lang-e may be classified in different ways: the morphologically and genealogically.

When we classified the language morphologically we mean the structure of the word of a living language. When we classified the language genealogically we mean the origin of the language. According to the M.C. the language are divided into languages having not affixes and the lang-s with affixes. The words of the lang-e, which has not affixes, are unchangeable (such as где, туда, здесь, там, in, at, for, since, etc). Word order is of a great important in lang-s with has no affixes. Languages with affixes are classified into agglutinative and inflected. Both of them are characterized by affixes but the connection between the root or the steam of the word and the suffixes is quite different. In inflected languages the suffix is characterized by two or more meanings. (домам). To the inflected languages we refer the language of Indo-European family (such as Russian, German, English, Latin, etc). In agglutinative languages the suffix is characterized only by one meaning (in Georgian lang., in English – some words like ox-oxen’s-бык). Agglutinative languages are divided into: Altanian, Agro-Finish, Iberian-Caucasian. According to the G.C. all the lang-s of the world are classified into large families of lang-s. They are: Indo-European, Semitic and Hermitic, Altaic, Iberian-Caucasian, Chinese-Tibet, Indonesian.


№2. The Verb in English and in Russian compare.


The verb is a notional part of speech. Both in E&R the verb denote an action (to write - писать), a process (to work) and a state (to sit, stand). Syntactically the verb functions as a simple verbal predicate. (Она пишет письма каждый день. She writes letters every day.) Morphologically the verb in Russian is characterized by the following categories: tense, aspect, mood, person, number, gender. The English forms has the same categories but they has not the category of gender but they has a time of relations. The verbs may be classified into: subjective and objective. Subjective verbs are connected with their subject. In English practically all the verbs are subjective. In Russian – not all. They may be used without their subjects (Темнеет). Objective verbs are closely connected with two nouns or noun equivalents. Objective verbs which are connected with their objects directly are transitive verbs, all others – intransitive.

As to their morphemes we find a greater variety and abundance of stem-building affixes in Russian (в-, вз-, воз-, пери-, за-, из-, на-, над-, низ-, -ова-, -ствова-). In English the number of v-building suffixes is limited (-ify, -ate, -en, etc). Though the number of prefixes in English is greater (mis-, un-, be-, out-, etc).

The most productive way of forming verbs in MoE is conversion. It is not characteristic in Russian (because of the different structures).  We find difference in the system of the non-finite forms, we find no gerund in Russian. The Infinitive in English is characterized by such categories as voice, aspect, correlation. The tense-system of the verb is different in the two languages. In English all the tenses but the Past Indefinite and Present Indefinite are analytical. In English all the tenses are tense-aspect forms but the indefinite group. In Russian practically the tenses are synthetically. Only the Future tense may be both synthetically and analytical.


№3. The category of tense in English and in Russian compare.

There are 3 tenses in both lang-s: Past, Present and Future. But there is difference in the number of grammatical tenses. This is because the two lang-s are different in their morphological structure. The Russian lang. has a rich morphology while the morphology of the English us poor.

In English all grammatical tenses are divided into 4 large groups. They are: Indefinite, Continues, Perfect, Perfect Continues. The specific feature of the English language is that all the tenses are analytical but the Present and the Past Indefinite. All tenses in English are tense-aspect forms, but the Indefinite tenses. We say that these tenses are tense-aspect forms because they express both the time of an action and the character of an action (He is reading a book now).

The tense-system of the verb is different in the two languages. In English all the tenses but the Past Indefinite and Present Indefinite are analytical. In English all the tenses are tense-aspect forms but the indefinite group. In Russian practically the tenses are synthetically. Only the Future tense may be both synthetically and analytical.


№4. The category of aspect in English and in Russian compare.

Both in ER is characterized by the category of aspect. But this category of two languages is quite different. In English the category of aspect shows the character of an action. That is whether the action is shown as a fact or it shown in its progress in its developments (Pete reads books everyday). Practically we have two aspects in English: the continues and the non-continues common aspects. In Russian the c.o.a. expresses the completeness or incompleteness of an action. The perfective aspect. Subject is usually form in MoR with the help of prefixes (внести, вынести, занести…).  Different verbs combine with the different number of prefixes. Usually the verb with the suffix ну- express instantanian action. In English we used only one word (толкать, толкнуть – to push). There are some modern verb in Russian with the suffix ну- which do not express instantanians actions. (вянуть, вязнуть, гаснуть, сохнуть) It depends upon the lexical meaning. The imperfective aspect. The words of imperfective aspect are formed by means of such suffixes as ыва-, -ива-, -ва-, -а-, -я-. (переписать – переписывать, забить – забивать). In English the repetition of an action is usually expressed with the help of the prefix “re-“ (to write-to rewrite). In MoR there are exist a group of words of motions which have two forms of the imperfective aspect. The category of aspect in MoR is very closely connected with the lexical meaning of the word.

№5. The category of voice in English and in Russian compare.

There are different points of view concerning the number of voices both in ER. There is an opinion that there are 3 voices in MoR: active, middle reflexive and passive. Grammatically we have only 2 voices in English; active and passive. (Boy reads the book. The book is read by the boy.) In the active voice the subject is the doer of an action while in the passive voice the subject is not the doer of an action. There are some group of verbs in MoR which are not used in the passive voice: 1) all the intransitive verbs without the suffix «ся» (идти, ехать, ходить), 2) reflexive verbs built upon intransitive ones (споткнуться, улыбнуться), 3) some verbs with the suffix «ся» having a special meaning (слушать-слушаться, нести-нестись).

The specific feature of the English language is that the Passive voice may be formed the verbs connected with the indirect object. (She gave me a book. I was given a book by her. – adv.modifier.) Let us compare the number of active-passive oppositions in both languages. We see that Russian have two: пишет - пишется. In English we have 10 active-passive opposition. The forms of the Future Continues, Present Perfect Continues, Past Perfect Continues, Future Perfect Continues are not used in the Passive Voice. The category of voice is closely connected with the text (братья переписываются, бумаги переписываются секретарем). The instrumental case in Russian corresponds to the by-phrase in English. When the Past Particle expresses a state – Active voice, when it expresses the action – Passive voice. The action is emphasized by the by-phrase, the adv.modifier and sometimes by the form itself. The continues perfect forms usually emphasize an action (the door has been shut – s.v.pr.).

№7. The category of mood in English and in Russian compare.

We find 3 moods both in ER. The category of mood expresses the relation of an action to reality. (We were at home at 6 o’clock – reality, If we were at home at 6 o’clock – unreality). The relation of an action to reality may be expressed lexically. Then we use modal verbs: конечно, обязательно, точно, etc. (Of course he will be at home now). The relation of an action may be expressed lexically and grammatically at the same time. Then we use modal verbs (He can do it. He may do it.). It may be phonetically with the help of intonation. The category of mood is one of the most complicated categories especially in English. Usually we speak about three moods in Russian. (Изъявительное, повелительное и сослагательное). The number of moods in MoE is greater. The best classification of moods was introduced by Смирнитский. He finds six moods, which must be divided into direct (Indicative, imperative) and indirect (Subjunctive I, II, suppositional and conditional) moods.

№8. The Subjunctive mood in English and in Russian compare.

In both languages the Subjunctive mood expresses a probable, possible, imaginary or unreal action. (If I had time I should visit you – если бы у меня было время, я бы посетил тебя.) There are many opinions exists concerning the number of moods both in ER. Smirnitsky finds 4 subjunctive moods in MoE: Subjunctive I, II, conditional and suppositional. There is an opinion that in MoR there are 5 subjunctive moods such as the conditional, the optative, the suppositional, the conditional optative and the subjunctive moods. But practically we have only 4 moods. The suppositional and subjunctive I are grammatical synonyms. They express probable, possible, imaginary actions. But there are quite different in their forms. Subjunctive I is a syntactical form of the mood. It has only one form. Which coincides with infinitive without “to”. (I write, he write, she write). The suppositional mood is an analytical form. It is formed with the help of a mood auxiliary “should +Infinitive”. (I should write, He should write). The SI is used both in simple and in complex sentences. (It is necessary that all the students be present at the classroom). The suppositional mood is used only in complex sentences (It is necessary that all the students should be present.). SI is archaic form and it is often replaced by the suppositional mood.  The SII and the conditional mood are also grammatical synonyms. They express unreal actions or non-fact actions. SII is considered to be a syntactical mood. It has two forms. If the action is referred to the present or to the future it’s form coincides with the past indefinite indicative (wrote, read). The verb “to be” is used to be “were”. If the actions refer to the past the form of SII coincides with the Past Perfect Indicative. (If I knew it. If I had know it.) It is usually used in subordinate clauses of the complex sentence. The conditional mood is an analytical. It is formed with the help of a mood auxiliary (“Should or Would”). (I should read, You would read). The conditional mood is usually used in principle clauses of complex sentences. (If I were you I should do it. – SII, conditional mood). (Referring to the past – If I had been you I should have done it).

The subjunctive mood in MoR is formed from the past tense form adding the particle бы. It possesses the category of gender and number.


№9. The noun as a part of speech in E&R compare.

The meaning of the noun in both languages is the same. It expresses “thingness”. Syntactically the noun both in ER is used in the same functions: subject, object and predicative. (A boy is going to school. My father is an engineer. Look at the picture on the wall.) A peculiarity of Russian is the abundance of suffixes of subjective appraisal (братец, билетик, доченька). In English there is a suffix “-let” (booklet, leaflet). In both languages we find the grammatical category of number and case. But they are different. In Russian we have practically 6 cases while in English we find only 2 cases (the common and the possessive). The common case in English isn’t marked while the nominative case in Russian is marked. (Cf: a table –стол, a window – окно). The formation of the plural number is standard in English and non-standard in Russian. Number and case are sometimes expressed by separate morphemes in English (oxen-oxen’s). The case-morpheme – “’s” may be used sometimes not with a noun (The man I saw yesterday’s son). Though the meaning of case in both languages is the relation of nouns to other nouns in the sentence. The possessive case is used only with nouns (Peter’s book - книга Пети). The common case in English is very widely used. It may function as any part of the sentence – subject, object, predicative, attributive, and adverbial modifier. Prepositions are of great importance in English. The of-phrase is practically used with all the nouns. The difference between the possessive case and the of-phrase is rather stylistic. The category of gender in the two languages is different. In Russian it is morphological while in English it is lexical. Practically we have only one suffix in English to express this category morphologically – “-ess”. In both languages nouns are divided into countable and uncountable. Uncountable include singularia tantum and pluralia tantum. In Russian there is nearly always the correlation between the form and between the combinability (часы стали, комитет заседает, семья ждет, сани едут). In English it is not so. (The cables are, physics is, the family is/are). The number of Russian nouns having no case-forms is not large. Usually they are borrowings. (пальто, такси, кенгуру, депо).

In both languages the functions of different cases are different. In Russian only a nominative case can be the subject. Only an accusative case may be a direct object, only a nominative or an instrumental case is used as a predicative. In English the possessive case is used practically as an attribute.


№10. The category of state in E&R compare.

In both languages exist such as asleep, awake, alike, хорошо, душно. This words expressed different states. By many Russian grammarians this words were discussed and called different (adverbs, adjectives, predicative adverbs or adjectives). Sherba was the first to say that these words form an independent part of speech and it was called the category of state. In English such words as asleep, awake. Ilyish called them stative, Хаймович called them add-link, and some others called them the words of the category of state or predicative. Usually such words are referred to these class: 1) words beginning with “a-“  - which is a prefix (alive, asleep, etc), 2) words beginning with “a-“  - which is not a prefix (afraid, awake, aloof, etc), 3) words consisting of one root which developed from adjectives or adverbs and now they denote a state (ill, glad, sorry, well, etc). The question is rather complicated because different grammarians refer different words of this class. Жигайло, Иванова, Йофик refer to this class only the words beginning with “a-“. There is an opinion that this class is very rich in words expressing a state. (Лейкина refers to this class such words as in, up, down, on, etc. e.g. what’s up?). Different opinion exist: 1) the words of the category of state form an independent part of speech. It may be characterized: semantically, morphologically and semantically. Professor Ilyish said that semantically they denote a state, morphologically they are characterized by the element “a-“, and syntactically they are used as a predicative. (He is asleep – comp.nom.pred.) 2) The words of the type “asleep” do not from an independent part of speech. There are predicative adjectives. This point of view was put forward by professor Бархударов. 3) The words of the type “alive” do not form a grammatical category, they form a lexically category. This is because a state may be expressed by different parts of speech: 1) by noun (it’s time to have dinner), 2) by adj. (he is happy or unhappy) and 3) by participle II (The house is destroyed). This point of view was put forward by professor Вилюман.

№11. The adjective as a part of speech in E&R compare.

Both in English and in Russian the adjective has the same meanings. It expresses the quality or the characteristics of an action. The adj. is characterized in the two languages by the same syntactical functions. They are attribute and the predicative. (An interesting book. A book is interesting). Morphologically the adj-e in ER is different. The Russian adj-e is more changeable. It’s characterized by such morphological categories as the category of gender, number, case and the category of the degrees of comparison. (интересная книга – интересные книги, яркое солнце, интересный собеседник). The adj-e has only one grammatical category – the category of the degrees of comparison. (red-redder-the reddest, good-better-the best). There are 3 degrees of comparison of adj-s. In both languages the positive degree, the comparative and the superlative. The positive degree in English is not marked (red, beautiful) while in Russian it is marked (красивый, красивая, красивое). In English adj-s are monosemantic, they have practically one grammatical meaning, while in Russian the adj-e is polysemantic (хороший has such gram-l m-gs as masculine gender, singular number, nominative case, the positive degree). But the synthetic comparative as красивее, лучшее и сильнее is monosemantic in Russian as well. In Russian most qualitative adjectives have short forms, which are usually used as predicative. The combinability of adjectives is also different in the 2 lang-s. In English we usually speak about lexical and lexical-grammatical combinability. In Russian the grammatical combinability is of great importance (широкое окно, коричневый стол). The English adjective may have its right-hand connection with the prop-word “one” (a good one, a nice one). There are some adj-ves in Russian the syntactical function of which changes the meaning (present, ill, glad; the present situation (not equal) the student is present). Russian adjectives are characterized by the so-called suffixes of subjective appraisal (длинненький, длиннющий, длинноватый). In both languages the adj is divided into two groups: qualitative, relative. The number of relative adj-s is much greater in Russian. Russian relative adj-s are usually rendered into English by a noun in the common case (настольная лампа – a table lamp). Among the relative adj-s in the Russian lan-ge. There is a group of possessive adj-s (Ольгин, мамин, отцов).

№12. Parts of speech in E&R compare.

Both in RE the vocabulary is classified into parts of speech. The words are classified into parts of speech according to three main principals: lexical, morphological and syntactical. ER belong to the Indo-European family of the languages. They have much in common. There are many words which both in languages having the same root morpheme: sister, brother, mother, etc. Practically we find the same parts of speech in both languages. But there is not article in Russian. Words having one and the same meaning may belong to different parts of speech. (тишина, тихий, тихо; to sleep, asleep, sleepy). This shows that the lexical meaning only is not enough to classify the vocabulary into parts of speech. The Russian language is syntactical, while the English is analytical. In Russian the morphological principle is a great importance when we classify words into parts of speech. The English morphology is poor and also the syntactical principle and the combinability of words are of great importance. (a black stone, a stone wall). The parts of speech in both languages are divided into: notional words and form-words order and empty words. Such parts of speech as the noun, the verb, the adjective, the pronoun, and the stative are notional parts of speech. But the conjunction, the preposition, the particle, the article are formal parts of speech. So in both languages there are some words, which forward from one into another parts of speech.

№13. The adverb as a part of speech in E&R compare.

The adverb is a notional part of speech both in ER. Therefore it is characterized lexically, morphologically and syntactically. The lexical meaning. The adverb in both languages denotes some circumstances under which an action takes place. It may also denote some characteristics of an action or of a quality. (He has come late. Он пришел поздно. He is here. Он здесь). These adverbs express some circumstances under which an action takes place. The syntactical functions of the adverb are also the same both in ER. It performs the syntactical function that of an adverbial modifier. (He is here. Он здесь. – the adverbial modifier of place). The adverb in the 2 languages may perform the syntactical functions of different adv. Modifiers such as time, place, manner, cause, purpose and so on. (He will come tomorrow. He speaks fluently.). As to the syntactical relations of the adverb to words of other classes, it is characterized by being connected with the verb, adjective and adverb. (He runs quickly. – verb; He is very clever. – adj; He acts very cleverly. - adverb). The adverb may be also connected with the noun, but this is not a characteristic feature of the adverb. (My friend lives in the room opposite. - noun). As to the morphological characteristics a part of adverbs in both languages has the degrees of comparison. (slowly-more slowly-the most slowly). All the adverbs in both languages are divided into 2 large groups. They are: Circumstantial, Qualitative. They are different both in their lexical meaning, grammatical char-s and word-formation. Circumstantial adverbs are those adverbs, which denote the circumstances under which an action takes place (here, there, late, здесь, теперь, там, тогда). While the qualitative adverbs do not express any external circumstances. They express the characteristics of an action or a quality. (slowly, fluently, badly). Qualitative adverbs are used in the function of an adverbial modifier of manner. (He runs quickly.) The circumstantial adverbs perform the function of adverbial modifiers but manner. (He was there. He will come tomorrow.) The circumstantial adverbs are always connected with the verb, they are unchangeable. The qualitative adverbs may be connected with verb, adj, adverb.

№14. Word-combination in E&R. Their definition and classification.                                                                                     

The word-combination both in ER is characterized by the following features. Practically the word-combination consist of two or more notional words (a brown table). There is an opinion that a word-combination may include two or more any words (a table, a book). Some grammarians thinks that it is a word-combination, while the sentence may be expressed by one word only, because the sentence possesses a complete intonation. The word-combination has practically no intonation. Therefore the word-combination is not a unit of communication. The word-combination has no predication. If we say “a black table” we are not quite sure what tense is meant here. Therefore the w-c has no predicative relations, such as the relation of person, tense, modality. While the main feature of the sentence is that expresses a predication. The w-c are usually build on the basis of one notional word. This notional word is usually called the pivotal word of the main word. The w-c are usually classified in accordance with their pivotal words. We may have such w-c as: 1) Substantial w-c (a red rose, красная роза); 2) adjectival; 3) verbal (to give lessons, to read books); 4) adverbial (quite near, совсем близко). W-cs both in ER may be classified into: - free syntactical comb-s, phraseological units. Free syntactical combinations are such combinations the part of which may be freely replaced (a large table – a large brown table). A phraseological unit is understood as a whole and its parts are not freely replaced (to show the white feather-струсить, танцевать от печки-to begin from the very beginning). A w-c may also classified according to their relations between the words in them. When we may have: attributive combinations (a young man, a brown table), objective (to read a book), adverbial (coming tomorrow, читал стоя/сидя). W-c may be simple and complex. Simplex w-c usually consist of 2 notional words (a red rose, a good student). Complex w-c consist usually of more than 2 words (to travel to a big city, a big red rose). W-c may be subordinative (include pivotal words, or the pivotive words) and coordinative w-c (all the element or words of they are equal – ножи и вилка, a boy and a girl).

№15. Agreement as a mode of syntactical connection in word-combination in ER compare.

Agreement is not often found in MoE, nut it is widely used in MoR. Agreement is used to adjust the form of modified word to the form of the pivotive word. (this room-these rooms, that room-those rooms, I have a book-he has a book). Agreement in MoR is found in such grammatical categories as gender, number, case, and person: 1) Full forms of adjectives in MoR agree with corresponding nouns in gender, number and case (широкий залив, широкая река, широкое озеро – gender; широкий залив – широкого залива – case; широкий залив – широкие заливы – number). In plural no agreement in gender is observed (широкие заливы – no gender). 2) Short forms of adjective do not agree in case. In singular they agree in gender, number (город красив, площадь красива – gender; город красив – города красивы – number). In Plural they agree only in number. Cardinal-numerals in case (пяти домов, пятью домами). Verbs in Future and Present Tenses agree in number and person (ученик пишет, ученики пишут).

№16. Government as a mode of syntactical connection in word-combination in ER compare.

Government is a variety of syntactical connection in accordance with which the use of the oblique case is dependent upon the grammatical meaning of the pivotal word. Government found both in ER. In English government is used to join together 2 nouns: the noun-attribute usually is used in the Possessive Case. (A boy’s book – boys’ books, A day’s holiday, an hour’s absence). Government is used in verbal combinations where the object is expressed by a personal pronoun (Believe me, help him). Prepositional government is more frequently used in MoE (to rely on him, to depend upon him). The verb governments through the preposition. In MoR governing words may be expressed by different parts of speech: 1) by a noun (крыло птицы); 2) by an adjective (склонный к шуткам); 3) by a numeral (двадцать деревьев); 4) by a pronoun (кто-то из братьев); 5) by an Infinitive (поливать улицу); 6) by an adverb (жарко от солнца). A noun or a noun-equivalent usually expresses governed words (извлекать полезное, уважение к старшим). In accordance with the part of speech the governing word belongs to, government in MoR is subdivided into: substantial (осмотр здания – gen. case), adjectival (интересный для зрителя – gen. case with a prep.), adverbial (делать весело, ему приятно), verbal (осматривать здание – accusative case, доверить врагу – dative case).

№17. Adjoining as a mode of syntactical connection in word-combination in ER compare.

Adjoining is a variety of syntactical connection when the dependence of one word upon another is expressed not morphologically but semantically (My room-my rooms, a small room-small rooms). In MoR the mostly spread adjoining is when an adverb is subordinated. Pivotal words may be expressed by different parts of speech:

1)    by a verb (твердо усвоен, хорошо написан),

2)    by a stative (вполне возможно),

3)    by an adjective (почти черный),

4)    by an adverb (очень слабо),

5)    by a noun (езда шагом).

The Infinitive as well may be subordinated (пошел заниматься, жаль расставаться). Sometimes деепричастие may be subordinated (разговаривая смотрел на собеседника).

№18. The sentence. Its features in ER compare. 3 main ways of word connection in the sentence.

Syntax is closely connected with morphology, but it is an independent part of grammar. It studies word-combinations and sentences. The main features of a sentence: 1) the sentence expresses a complete thought while w-c does not. (Cf: The table is brown. A brown table.); 2) the sentence has a definite intonation and that is why may consist only of one word, while the w-c consists of two or more words; 3) the sentence has a verb in a finite form (Cf: the weather is nice, the nice weather); 4) the sentence expresses predication that is the relation between what is said to reality.

The action may be real, unreal, possible, probable and so on. The action in the sentence may be referred to Present, Past or Future. The w-c in a sentence may be connected in 3 ways: - the lexical way, the grammatical and the phonetical way.

The lexical way is the connection of words according to their lexical meaning (мальчик читать книга – boy read book). Of course, the lexical way is not enough. The given sentences are understandable but they are not expressed grammatically. We don’t know the time of an action; we don’t know the type of the sentence. So, words in a sentence must be connected grammatically. There are 3 main grammatical ways of word connection in a sentence: 1) the forms of words, 2) the form-words and 3) the word order.

1.The forms of words are not typical of the English language, because the morphological system of it is poor. This way is typical of the Russian language. (I/You/We(S/he) read(s) a book, Я читаю, ты читаешь…).

2. The form-words is of a great importance in MoE. It is also wider spread in MoR. Form-words in ER are subdivided into: 1) the determinative form-words (we refer: in English – articles and particles while in Russian – only particles) and 2) connectives (both in ER we refer prepositions and conjunctions).

3. The word-order in MoE is of a great importance. In MoR the word-order in the sentence is rather free. While in English the first place is usually occupied by the subject, the second place is occupied by the Predicate, the third place – by the object, the fourth place – by the adverbial modifier. (Ann sees John - Аня видит Джона. John sees Ann (not equal) Джона видит Аня).

№19. Classification sentences according to the type of communication in ER compare.

Both in English and in Russian sentences may be classified according to: 1) types of communication and 2) structure.

According to the types of communication sentence in both languages are divided into: 1) declarative, 2) interrogative and 3) imperative.

A Declarative sentence states a fact in the affirmative or negative form. There is a great difference between English and Russian negative sentences. An English sentence may have only one negation while the Russian sentence one may have more than one. (Nobody was late. - Никто не опоздал.) An Interrogative sentence asks a question. In English there are four winds of questions: general, special, alternative and disjunctive. (Do you want…?, Where do you want…?, Do you want …or…?, You want…, don’t you?). Russian interrogative sentence may be divided into 2 groups: 1) Interrogative sentence having no interrogative words, sometimes they may contain such particles as ведь, как, что, неужели, разве, ли, and etc. In such cases they differ from declarative sentence in intonation. (Инженер поехал в Москву? Его здесь нет? Разве он вам писал? Неужели он ушел?); 2) Interrogative sentences having interrogative words, such as кто, что, куда, откуда, почему (Кто пришел? Что вы читаете?).  Special attention must be paid to the indirect questions the rules of sequence of tenses must be observed.

Imperative sentences serve to induce a person to do something. They express a command, a request, an invitation, a wish, a demand, a call and so on. Declarative, interrogative and imperative sentences may be exclamatory when they express a strong emotion (happiness, delight, anger, etc). (What a lovely day it is! How wonderful!) (Москва как много в этом звуке…).

№20. Classification sentences according to the structure in ER compare.

According to the structure sentences are divided into: two-member and one-member sentences. A two-member sentence has two members: the subject and the predicate. (Pete reads. Mary writes.) A two-member sentence may be: complete and incomplete 2 member sentences. The complete has both the subject and the predicate. The incomplete is a sentence then one of the principle parts or both of them are missing, but can be easily understood from the sentence. Such sentences are called elliptical. (Where are you going? – To the cinema.) Elliptical sentences are usually met in colloquial speech and dialogues. A one-member sentence is a sentence, which has only one member, which is neither the subject nor the predicate. One member makes the sentence complete. One-member sentences are generally used in description and in emotional speech. If the main part of a one-member sentence is expressed by a noun and the sentence is called nominal. (Dusk-of the summer night. Зима, крестьянин торжествует). A simple sentence may be extended (has both the principle parts of the sentence and the secondary parts. E.g. Pete reads book everyday.) and unextended (has only the subject and the predicate). Sentences in both languages may be composite. Composite sentences are divided into: compound and complex. A compound is a sentence which consist of two or more clauses coordinated with each other. (The darkness was thinning, but the street was still dimly lighting. Прозрачны лес один чернеет…). A complex sentence consist of a principal clause and one or more subordinate clauses. (He steps quicken as he set out from the hotel.) Subordinated clauses may be of different types: subject (Where I am going is unknown), object, predicative (with link-verb), attributive, adverbial.

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