: ,


3- ()

1, 2.




1998 .


3- () . . :

1.    - .

2.    .

3.    .


The Present Simple tense , , , , .

: to, 3- ( -S (-ES).

I try - he tries, write - writes

We speak - She speaks

- : usually, always, sometimes, often, seldom, every day (week, month, year)

: to do (does) , :

Do you know him?

Does he speak English?


: to do (does), not (do not , does not)

I don't know him

He doesn't speak English

The Past Simple Tense , .

: -ed 2-

He arrived yesterday.

She left in 1995.

: yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week (month, year), ago, the other day.

: did, :

Did you go there yesterday?

Did he work at school two years ago?

: did not (didn't).

I didn't go there last week.

He didn't buy any oil yesterday.

The Future Simple Tense , .

: will shell to.

: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next week (month, year), tonight, indays (hours).

He'll be busy tomorrow.

I'll be an engineer in two years.

We'll talk about it tonight.

: ( ):

Will you be en engineer after graduation from the Institute?

: not, . :

I shan't write

He won't write

Progressive Tense

The Present Progressive Tense


1)    . : now , at the present, at this moment.

I'm reading the text.

He is getting ready for his final exams.

We're watching TV.

2)    , .

We're dining out on Saturday.

He is staying in town tonight.

: to be ( )

Are you listening to me?


1)    I'm not writing

He's not writing

2)    He isn't writing

We aren't writing

The Past Progressive Tense , - .

: at that moment, at that time

At that time Mary was taking music lesson.

Past Progressive Tense "" , .. , () , .

While I was cleaning up the attic, I found some old letters.

They met when she was studying in Berlin.

: to be Past Simple I .

He was writing.

We were writing


I wasn't writing

We weren't writing

The Future Progressive Tense: to be Future Simple (shell be, will be) I .

I'll not be writing He won't be writing


Perfect Tenses ( )

The Past Perfect Tense: to have Present Simple II .

I've written

He's written

Present Perfect :

, , ( ) :

I have read the book.

He hasn't seen this film.

, , , :

I haven't seen him this month.

-: already, before, never, ever, just, this week (month, year).

Have you ever been there?

He has just left.

She has never learnt to drive.

The Past Perfect Tense ( ) , .

When I came to the station the train had left.

By that time we had read the book.

The Future Perfect Tense .

By Monday I'll have read your book.

Perfect Progressive.


The Present Perfect Progressive Tense to be Present Perfect (have been, has been) I .

, , , - .

Have you been waiting long?

It has been raining for two days.

The Past Perfect Progressive , , , .

I had been reading the letter from my boos when the telephone rang.

, , for since.

The Future Perfect Progressive Future Perfect.

Hell have been painting his fence for two hours by the time we see him.


: . .

, ?

Alices sister is a shop-assistant.

My friends names are Bill and Dan.






Perfect Progressive

V1 Vs

Do you speak English?

Does he work?


is Ving






been Ving




Did you?




had V3ed

had been Ving






be Ving



have V3ed



been Ving


V Verb (), V2ed Past Simple, V3ed Participle ( II)

Ving Participle I



I .

1.    , -, - . .

  1. I got up and had sausage, egg, bacon and tomatoes for breakfast and read the Sundy Mirror.
  2. My brother Erick knocked at door and asked me if I wanted to go fishing with him.
  3. We plan to increase our advertising.
  4. He didnt buy any oil yesterday.

2.    . . .

  1. I (to see) your mother yesterday. Shes looking fine.
  2. My boos (to fly) to New York again last week.
  3. It (to be) very late when I (to come) home last night.
  4. We (to buy a new fridge two months age.

3.    . . .

  1. Ive never been to Switzerland.
  2. Im going to the cinema.
  3. I like smoked salmon.
  4. My brother can speak six languages.

4.    Participle I II :

break, come, arrive, go, buy, be, watch, bring, send, older.

5.    , .

: Mary has got two brothers. Theyre both engineers.

Marys brothers are both engineers.


  1. My mother has both a new car. Its very expensive.
  2. Our manager has got a nice office. Its on the fourth floor.
  3. They have got two daughters. Their names are Monica and Pat.


6.    .





Everybody knows Harrods, and most people agree it's the best shop ill London. Even the Queen and Queen Mother do their shopping there, so it must be good... It's the largest and most famous store in England. You can get everything from large tropical snakes to antique pianos.

People like shopping in Harrods, and they spend a lot of money. The most money ever spent by a single customer was two million two hundred thousand pounds, and he paid in cash! It was the shop's biggest cash sale.

About 50,000 people go to Harrods every day, but the busiest times are Christmas and the January and July Sales, when many more shoppers visit the store. People can find the biggest bargains on the First day of the Sales. The first day is the most crowded. On that day, about 300,000 people visit Harrods.

One of the most popular buys at Christmas time are the Christmas puddings - Harrods sells over 120 tons of these a year.

Harrods has a great many overseas visitors, and it exports many of its goods. Some of the most unusual exports have included a Persian carpet to Iran, a fridge to Finland, six bread rolls to New York, and a pound of sausages to a yacht in the Mediterranean.

Answer the questions.

1. What famous people shop in Harrods?

2.          How many Christmas puddings do they sell every year?

3.          What other unusual exports do you hear about?


1.    , -, -

. .

  1. Food price in our country are going up fast.
  2. I will give you the exact date of despatch.
  3. Ive read that article already.
  4. What were you doing from three till five last Friday?

2.    . . .

  1. I (not see) Mary last week.
  2. She (to leave) in 1995.
  3. I (not speak) to Nick yet.
  4. He (to change) his job three times this year.

3.    .

. .

  1. We have known each other for three year.
  2. Monica told me about that.
  3. Weve seen Carmen before.
  4. Here is our catalogue.

4.    Participle I II :


answer, begin, drive, find, learn, meet, prove, wear, give, sell.

5.    , .

: Mary has got two brothers. Theyre both engineers.

Marys brothers are both engineers.

  1. Alice has got a sister. Shes much taller than her
  2. My brother has got two friends. Their names are Bill and Dan.
  3. My boss lives in a nice house. It is much more comfortable than mine.


6.    .


Marketing includes all the business activities connected with the movement of goods and services from producers to consumers. Sometimes it is called distribution. On the one hand, marketing is made up of such activities as transporting, storing and selling goods and, on the other hand, a series of decisions you make during the process of moving goods from producer to user. Marketing operations include product planning, buying, storage, pricing, promotion, selling, credit, traffic and marketing research.

The ability to recognize early trends is very important. Producers must know why, where, for what purpose the consumers buy. Market research helps the producer to predict what the people will want. And through advertising he attempts to influence the customer to buy. Marketing operations are very expensive. They take up more than half of the consumer's dollar. Th trend in the USA has been to high mass consumption. The construction of good shopping centres has made goods available to consumers. It provided a wide range of merchandise and plenty of parking facilities.

Active vocabulary.

producer -

consumer -

user -

distribution - ,

marketing - , ,

transporting -

storing - ,

storage -

product planning -

pricing -

promotion -

(- ),


traffic -

marketing research -

trend - ,

to predict -

to influence

Answer the questions.

1. What does marketing mean?

2. What activities does marketing consist of?

3. What do marketing operations include?


: to .



1.    , , and or, to .

2.    , , to.

I seem to have hurt thought I never meant to.

3.    to to be to have, .

4.    agree, be able, expect, hope, learn, need, want, would like, would love.

She agreed to help me.

5.    something to wear (drink, eat etc.) .


1.    to ( want, ought) do, will, shall, would, could had better.

2.    make (), let ()

What made you come so early?

Don't let the fire go out.


Passive Voice to be II : to be grown .

Simple Progressive Perfect


Is V3ed



Is V3ed


Has been V3-ed

Have been V3-ed






being V3ed


Had been V3-ed


Will be V3ed

Future Progressive Future Simple

Will have been



1.    to . .

1. Why don't you (to take/take) a holiday?

2. She agreed (to help/help) me.

3. I think he'll agree (to have/have)the meeting in his office.

4. You were able (do/to do) it yourself.

2.    , . .

1.    Windscreens (make) from glass.

2.    My new car (deliver) tomorrow.

3.    This shop (build) in 1956.

4.    I (tell) about that yesterday.

3.    .

1.    He was sure someone had moved his paper.

2.    Alan will paint the house for us while we're away.

3.    Somebody has drunk all the water.

4.    Many citizens visited the Sales last week.

4.    .

1.    This building was designed by a German architect.

2.    We're being driven to the airport by my brother.

3.    He's been offered a good job by manager.

4.    I was taught to use a computer by Mr. Wilson.

5.    () II:

broken, felt, gone, led, paid, met, put, sent, spent, told.

6.    .




Wholesaling is a part of the marketing system. It provides channels of distribution which help to bring goods to the market. Generally indirect channels are used to market manufactured consumer goods. It could be from the manufacturer to the wholesaler, from the retailer to the consumer or through more complicated channels. A direct channel moves goods from the manufacturer or producer to the consumer.

Wholesaling is often a field of small business. About a quarter of wholesaling units account for one-third of total sales.

Two-third of the wholesaling middleman are merchant wholesalers who take title to the goods they deal in. There are also agent middlemen who negotiate purchases or sales or both. They don't take title to the goods they deal in. Sometimes they take possession though. These agents don't earn salaries. They receive commissions. This is a percentage of the value of the goods they sell.

Wholesalers simplify the process of distribution. As a wholesaler handles a large assortment of items from numerous manufacturers he reduces the problem of both manufacturer and retailer. The store-keeper does not have to deal directly with thousands of different people. He usually has a well-stocked store and deals with only a few wholesalers.

Answer the questions.

1. What is the aim of the wholesaling?

2.What is an indirect channel of distribution?

3. What channel of distribution is preferable?



1.    to . .

  1. I would love (learn / to learn) Japanese.
  2. Do you know how (to use / use) computer?
  3. If you want (to go / go) to China you have (to get / get) a visa.
  4. Do you think Ann will agree (have / to have) the meeting in her office?

2.    , . .

  1. Over forty languages (speak) in Kenya.
  2. The telephone (invert) by a Scotsman.
  3. You wedding dress (finish) in a couple of days.
  4. Our shop (visit) by hundreds of buyers everyday.

3.    .


  1. Theyve found your wallet in the supermarket.
  2. The whole family watches this program.
  3. Somebody has taken my book.
  4. We were discussing the plan when he came.

4.    .

  1. Paris is visited by thousand of tourists every year.
  2. The last lecture will be given by Prof. James.
  3. A definite answer will have been given you by Monday.
  4. The catalogues may be looked through by our customer.

5. II:

brought, found, flown, hurt, left, made, seen, shown, stood, thought.



6. .


Retailing is selling goods and services to the ultimate consumer. Thus, the retailer is the most expensive link in the chain of distribution. Being middlemen, they make their profit by charging the customer 25 to 100 per cent more than the price they paid for the item.

The retailers operate through stores, mail-order houses, vending machine operators. There are different types of retail stores: department stores, discount houses, cooperatives, single line retailers. The major part (over 95 per cent) of retail establishments concentrate on a single line of merchandise for example, food, hardware, etc. But nowadays there is a trend for many single line stores to take on a greater variety of supplies.

The retailer performs many necessary functions. First, he may provide a convenient location. Second, he often guarantees and services the merchandise he sells. Third, the retailer helps to promote the product through displays, advertising or sales people. Fourth, the retailer can finance the customer by extending credit. Also the retailer stores the goods in his outlet by having goods available.

Active vocabulary.

retailing -

ultimate consumer -

mail-order house -

vending machine operator - ( : , ..)

discount house -

single line retailer - , -

to perform functions -

extending credit -

outlet - ,

discount -

Answer the questions.

1. What is retailing?

2. In what way does a retailer serve a customer?

3.    In what way does a retailer serve a manufacturer?

Passive Voice

Simple Progressive Perfect Perfect Progressive


Is V3ed



Is V3ed


Has been V3-ed

Have been V3-ed






being V3ed


Had been V3-ed


Will be V3ed


Will have been


Future in the Past

Would be V3ed


Would have been V3ed



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