: ( ),

堠 3

     1. to be Present, Past and Future Simple ( , ). . 4

     2. . . , . . . 12

     3. Articles () 36

     4. PRESENT SIMPLE. ( ) 41

     5. MODAL VERBS. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE ( ) 44

     6. Comparative And Superlative of Adjectives 49

     7. PAST SIMPLE ( ) PRESENT PERFECT ( ) 52

     8. PAST PROGRESSIVE ( )..PAST PERFECT( ). 63

     9. THE FUTURE ACTION 68

     10. Passive Voice ( ) 75

     : 85

     1 () 85

     2 () 102

     3 ( ) 102

     . 107


 

.

.

10 . .

, , .

Headway Pre-Intermediate, , , , . :

1. , ( ), , . : "".

2. (5-10 ), , ( ).

3. : , , . .

4. , . , - . .

5. , . !

 

:

1. Headway Pre-Intermediate. Oxford, 1997. ( )

2. Murphy R. English Grammar in Use. M., 1997.

:

3. . 4 . .

4. . . . .

1.    . . . 2 . I. .

.. . . ., - , 1997

1

To be Present Simple ( )

Positive

 

(written)

I am

You are

He is

She is

It is

We are

They are

(.

)

(spoken)

Im

Youre

Hes

Shes

Its

Were

Theyre

Negative

 

(written)

I am not

You are not

He is not

She is not

It is not

We are not

They are not

( )

(spoken)

Im not

You are not / You arent

He is not / He isnt

She is not / She isnt

It is not / It isnt

We are not / We arent

They are not / They arent

 

 

Questions )

Am I ....?

Are you ...?

Is he ...?

Is she ...?

Is it ...?

Are we ...?

Are they ...?

 

Short answers ( )

Yes I am. No I am not. / No Im not.

Yes you are. No you are not. / No you arent.

Yes he is. No he is not. / No he isnt.

Yes she is. No she is not. / No she isnt.

Yes it is. No it is not. / No it isnt.

Yes we are. No we are not. / No we arent.

Yes they are. No they are not. / No they arent

to be Past Simple ( )

positive negative question

(.) ( ) ()

I/he/she/it was I/he/she/it was not (wasnt) was I/he/she/it?

We/you/they were we/you/they were not (werent) were we/you/they?

to be Future Simple ( )

I/he/she/it/we/you/they will (ll) be

I/he/she/it/we/you/they will not be (wont be)

Will I/he/she/it/we/they be

to be:

 

1. : , ; , :

How are you? () ?

Are you often in town? ?

How much is it? ?

2. -:

is a teacher. .

I am cold. .

(Present Indefinite) to be :

I am = I'm we are = we're

he is = he's you are = you're

she is = she's they are = they' re

It is = It's

Present Indefinite to be:

I am not = I' m not

he is not = he's not

she is not = she's not

it is not = it's not

we are not = we're not

you are not = you're not

they are not = they're not

 

to have

, to have - , ,

- " ", " ", have :

we have ...

Peter has ...

to have :

1. 3- have has

2. have ( to be) : You have... - Have you...?

do:

- Do you have a ..? - - ?

- Yes, I do. - , .

- No, I do not (=don't) - .

have , :

I haven't a pen (I have not a pen).

I have no pen.

have, - (); no - , , have :

I have no time. ( ).

I have no money. .

3. to have :

has supper after six. .

We have a good time in .

summer.

have ;

. have

:

to have supper to have a talk

to have a smoke to have a good ()

to have a swim (bad) time

4. to have , :

I have a good watch. .

5. to have - I have, he has .. - - I've got (I have got), he's got (he has got), , , got ( ) : !

I've got a large library. = .

= I have a large library.

to do

, to be, to have (to) do , , , :

I do my work well. .

to do :

Do you speak English? -? ( ...)

Does he speak French? -?

Does she smoke? ? ( ?)

do/does :

- Yes, I smoke. - , .

-     Yes, he smokes (cigars). - , (). (.. ).

do/does

- Yes, I do. - . - No, I don't. - .

- Yes, he does. - . - No, he doesn't. - .

He : to do :

1 do it well. () .

does it carelessly.

.

to do :

What do you do?

How do you do?

What are you doing now?

Do you do lecturing?

Does he do lecturing?


( )? : !

( )?

()?

()?


to do , ( ):

Kate plays chess, but I don't. , .

= (I don't play chess)

: Do you know Peter? - ? -

, .

: Do you want tea or coffee? - ? -

, ( , ).

.

or (), , .

, , , :

1. Do you teach J Peter, or ~\ Max? ?

2. Do you want J tea, or ~\ coffee? ?

3 Do Bess and Kate come home early or late? ?


13. . Disjunctive Questions

.

( ) ( ), , ( ), not ( ). :

1) , - :

.+(. .) + , . +...,. . + not + .( .)

You have a car, haven't you?

Helen is a doctor, isn't she?

Nick and Ann are reading, aren't they ?

. they.

, ?

- , ?

, ?

22) , - :

Kate isn't an engineer, is she? , ?( ?)

Mike hasn't a dog, has he? , ?( ?) These girls are not playing, are they? , ?( ?)

,

) , - ;

) , , , - :

 

You speak English, don't you? - -, ?

:

- Yes, I do (. .). - Yes, we are (. .).

" ?", "?", "?" .. " , ?", . , . :

- She is not (isn't) very - ,

busy, is she? ?

:

- No, she is not (isn't). - .

- Sasha is a good student, isn't he? - , ?

- Yes, he is. .

 

 

. , a yes - , , - . ;

- , ? -().

- , ? - .

~ , ? - .

- , , ? - ( ). , , but, yes . :

- Kate is my sister, isn't she?

- But she isn't (=No, she isn't).

- Nick isn't a good student, is he? - But he is.

 

14. -.

,

, , , -. ,

. :

 

- Do you speak English? - Yes, I do. - (),

- -? - No, I don't. - ( ).

- Did he go to China last year? - No, he didnt . ( )

- ? Yes, he did. ()

- Does she play volleyball? - Yes, she does. ( ).

- ? - No, she doesnt. , ( )

- Can they swim? - Yes, they can. ( )

- ? - No, they cant. ( )


- Have you seen Helen?

- ?

- Will he ask her about it?

- ?


- Yes, I have.- ().

No, I haven't. - ( ).

- Yes, he will. - ().

- No, he won't. - ( ).


~ Can you lend me your dictionary? - Yes, I can. - ().

- - No, I can't. - ( ).

?

2. , , :

- Who knows that man?

-     ?

-     I do.

-     ().

-     Helen does.

-     ().

- How many students in your group have read this book?

- ( ) ?

-     All have. ( .)

3. Do I? Don't I? . :

? ? ? ?

- You look very tired. - .

- Do I ? - ?(? ? ?)

- didn't pass the examination. - .

- Didn't he? - ? ?

- can swim across this river. - .

- Can he? - ? ?

- has written a play.

- Has he?


.

? ?


 

2

1. .

(. morphe - , logos - ) - , , , . , , , , , , .

- ; :

"", "-", "-", "-", "".

(. affixus - ) - , . : "-", "--", "-", : "-", " -". , , (, ), ( ), ( ) .

(. suffixus - ) - , , ,"--", "--", "--".

- . : - - - --; - - --; - - -- - ---.

(. flexio - , ) - , , "-", "-", "-", "-".

(. morphe - ) - (, , , ). , "" - 4 : (), (), (), (). , , , ; , ; ( ), .

(. phonema - ) - , () , ( ),

- , .

, , .

:

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

9)

, , , , - . , , .. , , . , , .

(, , ) , , , .

2. . The Noun

1. , . , : who is this? ? what is this? ? : who is this? - a man, a girl, an engineer; what is this? - a house, wheat [wi:t] {), work [wok] {).

2. . : a table, the table, on () the table, under () the table. "" {, -}.

3. : : a table {..), tables (..), a book {..), books {..).

4. : "" "": worker ( ), worker's ( ), father ( ), father's ( ).

5. :

) : Volga, London, Peter;

: a boy, a house.

) : a book, books;

: knowledge (), power {).

) : a man {), a woman {)',

: a chair {), water (), a window {).

6. , , .

7. ( ), : bedroom {), newspaper {), reading-room{), ink-pot [irikpot] {), letter-box [letbks] { ), -board { }, milkman { ), hothouse [hothaus] {).

8. , : commander-in-chief {), mother-in-law (), son-in-law (), an editor-in-chief { ).

:

) :

The train leaves at six o'clock. .

The actor played his part well. .

) :

is a teacher. .

is a writer. .

) :

! have (I've) received a telegram. .

I shall (I'll) speak to the manager. .

The boy looked at the picture. .

) :

This is the manager's room. .

Our wall newspaper is interesting. .

) :

There is a hospital in the village. .

I saw my friend in the morning ( ) e .

. , - - :

man (), house (), face (), book (), joy (), ship (), town (), wheat [wi:t] ().

:

help - to help - jump - ꠠ to jump - work - ࠠ to work - light - , , , , to light - ().

- ; , .. , . :

I light the candle. .

light , , - , .. .

:

Light is necessary for living matter. .

light , , , - , .. .

:

lives in a light, warm room. , . light, warm, room, ? ""; - , .. light -. ( ) , , , :

the light lamp

the lamp light (: )

, - , , .

, - :

teach-er, whit-ness, child-hood, friend-ship, dictation

:

-er; -or: a worker {}, a writer (}, a director, a sailor (), translator (), a lawyer ().

ment:

-ist:

-ness:

-ion:

development (), agreement (), government ().

typist (), cyclist ().

happiness (), kindness (), goodness (),darkness (), quickness ().

- tion, - sion connection (), restriction (), attestation (), invitation (), dictation (), decision (), discussion ().

dom:

-ity:

hood:

-ship:

-ism:

freedom (), wisdom ().

activity ()

chidhood (), neighbourhood ().

leadership (), friendship (),

liberalism ['liberalizm] (), separatism

3. . Proper Nouns and Common Nouns

. , , , , , .. , - , - . : London, Peter, John Smith.

, , "" ; "", "", "" ..

1. ,

.

:

There is a library in this street. .

There are very many libraries . in Moscow.

2. , , , . :

Coal [koul] is produced in many

districts of our country, .

Knowledge is power. - .

3. ; :

carried a brick (two bricks) ( )

in each hand. .

: Our house is built of brick. .

4. ,

, ; :

It is a good wine. .

prefers Caucasian wines ࠠ to Crimean wines, .

5. , :

made a speech yesterday. .

His speeches are always .

interesting.

4.

, , , , .' :

a girl-friend -

a boy-friend -

a woman-worker -

a he-goat - ( he )

a Tom-cat -

-ess :

actor [aekta] 𠠠 - actress [aektris]

host [houst] - hostess [houstis] .

lion [laian] ⠠ - lioness [laianis]

tiger [taiga] 𠠠 - tigress ['taigris]

mister ['mista] (. Mr) - , ; ()

mistress [mistris] - (. Mrs [rnisiz]) , ;

, , , it he she, they, . : , , he she; , , , , - it - they - .


5. .

1. -s, :

books [buks], desks [desks], maps [maeps].

2. , s; ss, x, sh, ch, -es, [iz]: speeches (), dresses (), classes (), dishes ().

3. , -s . : textbooks, schoolboys, housewives, postmen, custom-houses, hotel-keepers

4. : silver [silva] ; hair [hea] , ; snow [snou] ; air [] , ; iron ['aian] (); salt [solt] ; sugar ; , : love [iav] ; life [laif] ;

light [lait] ; darkness [da:knis] . , :

This spoon is made of silver. .

, , :

The silver of which the spoon is made is expensive.

, , .

5. : contents {}, clothes {}, proceeds (), goods {}, wages { }, riches (), arms {}, stairs {}.

. : poiice [polis] (), cattle [kasl] { }, poultry ['poltri] { }, people [pi:pl] {

.( , people , , peoples.)

6. advice (, ), information [, , }, progress (, }, knowledge {, }, money () :

gave me some good advice. . We have very little information on this subject. . I am satisfied with your progress. . This money belongs to him.

7. fruit, deer, sheep, fish, hair :

Fruit is cheap in summer, .

We eat a great deal of fruit. ( : ).

8. , -s, :

foot [ feet [fi:t]

tooth teeth

goose geese [gi:z]

mouse mice[mais]

man men [men]

woman women [wimin]

child children

9. , ,

datum ࠠ data ['deita]

addendum 堠 addenda

memorandum memoranda

phenomenon 堠 phenomena

basis 񠠠 bases

crisis 񠠠 crises

10. penny ['peni] - [pens], . , pennies:

It costs eighteen pence. 18 .

Pennies are made of bronze. (.. ) .

11. export import , ( ).

Export import - exports, imports, - :

Russian exports to Poland as well as Russian imports from that country have greatly increased. , , .

, export import:

That organization is engaged in

the export and import of different 젠 .

12. , -ics (mathematics, physics, phonetics ..) , :

Phonetics is a branch of linguistics.

6. (Possessive Case)

, , (Possessive Case); (Common Case), .

Possessive Case :

1) , - :

Tom's friends

my sister's copy-book

the dog's tail

2) , , :

A month's vacation

Two kilometres' walk .

3) , :

the sun's rays

the moon's light

the earth's surface

4) , , , , , , , , :

Moscow's squares

the morning's noise

the night's shadows

5) , :

the needle's eye

the pin's head .

Possessive Case -'s, [s] , [z] [iz] s(s), , se, x, ze, d(g)e, ch, ten, sh:

the cats tail

the girl's dress

James's wife

George's brother

the fish's fins ( )

., -(e)s, Possessive Case :

the horses' hoofs

the dogs' collars .

, -(e)s , Possessive Case , -'s:

These men's room. .

Children's literature. .

The geese's cry. .

Possessive Case

-'s

:

My brother-in-law's writing-table. ().

The editor-in-chief's study. .

This workman's tools. .

 

,

.

- , , . , : , , , . , , , . I (), you (, ), he (), she (), it (), we (), you (), they () .

1- I .

2- , , . , , you, you , , , .

3- , , (he, she, it), - , -they [].

, :

I have never seen the boy

before: is he your friend? : ?

it , , , child - , .he book is on the shelf. .

It is on the shelf. .

The window is open. It is open.

Don't wake up the child. It is soundly asleep.

.

: .

(Nominative Case)

I

YOU

HE, SHE, IT

,,

WE

YOU

THEY

:

1. :

I see that picture. .

2. :

It is I (he, we ..) (, ..)

 

Subject

I I like Ann.

We We like Ann.

You You like Ann.

He He likes Ann.

She She likes Ann.

They They like Ann. Object

Ann likes me. Me

Ann likes us. Us

Ann likes you. You

Ann likes him. Him

Ann likes her. Her

Ann likes them. Them

some any .

) Some , , ; , : I have some bread. He has some books.

) Any , , some , : I dont have any butter. He doesnt have any friends. - Do you have any money? - Yes, I have some. -Does he have any questions? - No, he doesnt have any.

1: , some, : Would you like some wine?

2: any , , : You can find such booklets in any library.

I, WE - 1 , ,

me, us - 1

my, our- 1

YOU - 2 , ,

you - 2

your - 2

HE, SHE, IT, THEY - 3 , ,

him, her, it, them - 3

his, her, its, their - 3

 

. . I /me /we /us /you /he /him/she /her/they /them.

1. I want to see her, but she doesnt want to see me.

2. They want to see me but .............. dont want to see ..........

3. We want to see them but ...............dont want to see ..........

4. She wants to see him but ............... dont want to see ........

5. I want to see him but .....................doesnt want to see .........

6. They want to see her but ............... doesnt want to see .........

7. I want to see them but ...................dont want to see ............

8. He wants to see us but ...................dont want to see ..........

9. You want to see her but .................doesnt want to see .........

2. , me /us /him /her /it /them.

1. Who is that woman? Why are you looking at her.

2. Do you know that man? Yes, I work with ...........

3. Im talking to you. Please listen to ..........

4. These photographs are nice. Do you want to look at ...............

5. I like this camera. Im going to buy ................

6. Where are the tickets? I cant find .................

7. Were going out. You can come with ............

8. I dont like dogs. Im afraid of ......................

9. Where is she? I want to talk to........................

10. Those apples are bad. Dont eat ...................

 

.

I my

I like my job.

we our

We like our jobs.

you your

You like your job.

he his

He likes his job.

she her

She likes her job.

they their

They like their jobs.

it its

Oxford (= it) is famous for its university.

1. .

1. He ... He lives with his parents.

2. They live with ...................... parents.

3. We ....................................... parents.

4. Ann lives ..........................................

5. I ...........................................parents.

6. John lives .........................................

7. Do you live ......................................?

8. Most children ...................................

2. my /our /your /his /her /their /its.

1. I like my job.

2. Do you like ............... job?

3. Does your father like ............. job?

4. Sally is married. ........ husband works in a bank.

5. I know Mr. Watson but I dont know ......... wife.

6. Put on ............ coat when you go out. Its very cold.

7. ......... favourite sport is tennis. I play a lot in summer.

8. My sister plays tennis too but ....... favourite sport is athletics.

9. Were staying at a very nice hotel. ......... room is very comfortable.

10. Mr. and Mrs. Baker live in London but ....... son lives in Australia.

11. Thank you for ........... letter. It was good to hear from you again.

12. We are going to invite all ........... friends to the party.

13. John is a teacher but ........... sister is a nurse.

14. Do you think that most people are happy in .......... jobs?

15. I gave the money to my mother and she put it in ........ bag.

16. I often see that man but I dont know .......... name.

17. Theyve got two children but I dont remember .......... names.

18. The company has offices in many places but .......... head office is in New York.

 

I my mine

we our ours

you your yours

he his his

she her hers

they their theirs

Its my money.

Its our money.

Its your money.

Its his money.

Its her money.

Its their money.

Its mine.

Its ours.

Its yours.

Its his.

Its her.

Its theirs.

   my /our /your /her /their + a noun ( my hands / your book etc.):

-    My hands are cold.

-    Is this your book?

   mine / ours / yours / hers / theirs without a noun:

-    These books are mine but this newspaper is yours.

-    I didnt have an umbrella, so Ann gave me hers.

-    Its their problem, not ours.

-    Is that their car? No, theirs is green.

1. , mine / yours etc.

1. Its your money. Its yours.

2. Its my bag. Its ................

3. Its our car. Its ................

4. Theyre her shoes. Theyre ...............

5. Its their house. Its ................................

6. Theyre your books. Theyre ..................

7. Theyre my glasses. Theyre ...................

8. Its his coat. Its ................

2. .

1. Is this your/ yours book?

2. Its their/ theirs problem, not our/ ours.

3. Are these your / yours shoes?

4. Is this camera your/ yours?

5. Thats not my / mine umbrella. My/ mine is yellow.

6. They know our / ours address but we dont know their / theirs.

7. Theyve got two children but I dont know their / theirs names.

8. My / Mine room is bigger than her / hers, but her / hers is nicer.

 

A LOT/MUCH/MANY ()

a lot of money a lot of books

much money many books

much + uncountable noun many + plural noun

( + 堠 ( + .-)

)

much money many banks

much time many people

much food many shops

much coffee many credit cards

a lot of + uncountable or plural noun (

)

a lot of money a lot of computers

a lot (of) is more usual in positive sentences ( )

-They havent got much money but theyve got a lot of friends.

-There is a lot of equipment.

- There are a lot of banks.

Much/many are more usual in questions and negative sentences ( )

-               Do you drink much coffee?

-               How much money have you got?

-               She hasnt got much money.

-               Did you take many photographs?

-               I took some but not many.

 

A LITTLE () A FEW ()

LITTLE/FEW ()

a little water a few computers

(a) little + uncountable noun: (a) few + plural noun:

(() little + . .-堠 () few + .-)

(a) little time (a) few letters

(a) little money (a) few days

I speak a little Spanish Last night I wrote a few letters.

They have a little money so Ive got a few friends, so Im not lonely.

they are not poor. Im sad and lonely. Ive got few friends.

They have little money. They

are very poor.

it

, it, .

it :

) :

It is winter. .

It is cold. .

It is getting dark. .

It was a warm spring day. .

) , :

it often snows in February. .

It was freezing. .

) :

It is early morning. .

It is five o'clock. .

It is noon. .

 

. The Predicate

, , . : What does the subject do? ?

.

, :

She works at a factory. .

She is reading. .

They will return soon. .

- ( to be, ) , . :

) :

I am a student. .

They are workers. .

) :

It is she. .

This book is yours. .

) :

The room is in disorder. .

) :

The-morning was warm. .

The glass is broken .

) :

Tour duty is to help them. - .

, there is, there are

, there is (are) , , , - - . there is (are) , , :

There is a telephone in that room. .

There are many apple-trees in the () .

garden.

there is (are) . some, any, many, two, three . .:

There is a lamp on the table. () .

There are some (two, three) lamps ()

on the table, (, ). to be there:

Is there a telephone in your room? ?

there is (are) yes there is (are) :

Is there a telephone in your room? - Yes, there is.

-     No, there isn't.

-     Are there some lamps on the table? - Yes, there are.

- No, there aren't.

:

1. not, to be not isn't, aren't, wasn't, weren't:

There isn't a telephone in this room. . There aren't any chairs in the room. .

2. , , :

There is no telephone in this room. .

There are no chairs in the room. .

, . not , .

1. :

The book is on the table. .

The books are on the table. .

2. , and, :

The telegram and the letter . are on the table.

3. there is (are) , :

There is a lamp, an inkpot , and some pencils on the table, .

4. all , :

All is clear. .

all , :

All were of the same opinion. .

 

Question ()

Is there, are there, was there, were there, will there be

Theres a train at 10.30

There are 24 hours in a day.

There was a good film on TV yesterday.

There were 250 rooms.

There will be a lot of people at the party.

some any :

 

1. Is there any wine in the bottle?

There's some rice in the jar. There's some milk in the bottle. There's some sugar in the jar. There's some oil the bottle. There's some water in the jug. There's some wine in the bottle.

There are some apples on the table. There are some eggs on the table. There are some oranges on the table. There are some bananas on the table. There are some lemons on the table. There are some onions on the table.

 

 

Exercise

There isn't any butter. There isn't any cheese. There isn't any beer. There aren't any tomatoes. There aren't any mushrooms. There aren't any eggs. The fridge is empty!

Is there any cheese in the fridge? - Yes, there is. is there any butter in the fridge? - No, there isn't. Are there any eggs in the fridge? - Yes, there are. Are there any tomatoes in the fridge? - No, there aren't.

A: There's some butter in the freezer.

B: How much is there?

A: There's a lot ([lot] - ).

Speech etiquette Address. .

' Sir! - , , . ,

, , . , ,

.

Madam - , .

Miss - , . Miss , .

* Friend! - ! - .

* :

Grandmother, grandma! - ! Grandfather, grandpa! - ! -

* 젠 젠 (, ): Dear! Miss! -!;

Son! Sonny! Boy! - !

* / :

Mr ( + Sir} - .

Miss (+ , ) - .

Miss - , , .

, :

Mrs + . / Miss + .

: Professor + Professor , , . :

Mr + , Miss + , / : John,

Margaret.

Professor

, . .

* colleague , - , .

* :

Friends! -!

Ladies and gentlemen! - ! ( ); !

* :

ࠠ Margaret

䠠 Edward

, , . Elizabeth: Lisa, Elsie, Libby, Beth, Bet, Betty, Bess etc.

 

3

Articles ()

Is it a man? ( Any man)

Is it the man with a moustache. ( A particular man)

: a, the.

a :

a , : a boy, a pen

an , (a/ e / i / o / u): an apple, an economist

a/an

,

(milk, oil, music, money).

a/an,

(, ) .

This is a lamp.

Have you got a sister or a brother?

the , .

the () .. , , , .

Open the door , please.

Usually we do not say the + names of places:

France is a very large country.

But we say the + republic / states / kingdom:

The United States of America

Usually we do not say the + names of streets, squares etc..:

Kevin lives in Coronation Street.

We do not say the + name of place + airport / station / university / castle :

Munich Airport

Paddington Station

But we usually say the + names of hotels / restaurants / pubs / cinemas / theatres / museums:

The Hilton Hotel
The national Theatre
The Tate Gallery

We say the + names of oceans / seas / rivers / canals:

the Atlantic Ocean

The Nile

We say the + names with ... of ...:

the Republic of Ireland

the Tower of London

the north / south / east / west / middle of

Ive been to the north of Italy but not to the south.

We say the + plural names of countries / islands / mountains:

the Netherlands

the Canary Islands

:

1. a/an the.

1 I wrote to her but ..the.. letter never arrived.

2 Britain is ..an... island.

3 What is ........ name of this village?

4 Jane is ........ very nice person. You must meet her.

5 Montreal is ........ large city in Canada.

6 What is ........ largest city in Canada?

7 'What time is it?' 1 don't know. I haven't got ........ watch.'

8 When I went to Rome, I stayed with ........ Italian friend of mine.

9 You look very tired. You need ........ holiday.

10 Don't sit on ........ floor. It's very dirty.

11 'Let's go to ........ restaurant this evening.'

'That's ........ good idea. Which restaurant shall we go to?'

12 Can you turn on ........ radio, please? I want to listen to some music.

13 Tom is in ........ bathroom. He's having ........ bath.

14 This is a nice room, but I don't like ........ colour of........ carpet.

15 We live in ........ old house near ........ station. It's two miles from ........ centre.

2.   . . 'The'.

Alps Amazon Atlantic Bahamas Cairo Kenya Red Sea Asia Andes Pacific Malta Rhine Switzerland Tokyo United States

1 ..Cairo....................... is the capital of Egypt.

2 ...The Atlantic........... is between Africa and America.

3 .................................. is a country in the middle of Europe.

4 .................................. is a river in South America.

5 .................................. is the largest continent in the world.

6 .................................. is the largest ocean.

7 .................................. is a river in Europe.

8 .................................. is between Canada and Mexico.

9 .................................. is in East Africa.

10 ................................ are mountains in South America.

11 ................................ is the capital of Japan.

12 ................................ is an island in the Mediterranean.

13 ................................ are mountains in central Europe.

14 ................................ is between Saudi Arabia and Africa.

15 ................................ are a group of islands near Florida.

3. :

Come and look at this picture.

This isnt a very good party.

These grapes are not very sweet.

This is my friend Paula.

(on the phone) This is Ann.

What is that on the wall?

He is ill. Thats why hes away.

Stop that noise!

Thanks - that was a great dinner.

(on the phone) Who is that?

Do you remember those people we met in Scotland?

4. :

This is a king. That is an egg.

This is a boy. That is a window.

This is a shilling. That is a prince.

This is a cup. That is a waiter.

This is a flower. That is a star.

This is a man. That is a n eye.

This is a train. That is a child.

This is an aeroplane. That is a picture.

 

5. this, that, these, those.

Why are you living .... country?

Get me ... box from the table.

What was .... noise?

Come ... way, please.

Who are .... people over there?

Who said ...?

Isnt .... girl nice?

I cant write with ... pens.

How could she marry ... idiot!

6. :

There are no grapes in the market.

There will be rain tonight.

There is snow on the mountains.

There are two men at the door.

Once upon a time there were three pigs.

There are many cars in the street.

7.   there is (there isnt)

.... no water on the moon.

.... no TVs in the 15th century.

Once upon a time .... a beautiful princess.

Tomorrow ..... snow.

.... some soup, if you are hungry.

.... any potatoes?

.... an accident/ can I phone?

I am afraid ... time to see Grandmother.

.... many tigers in the jungle.

 

 

8.   there is it is:

... . a cat in your bedroom.

..... not easy to understand him.

..... cold tonight.

..... ice on the roads.

..... nice to see you.

..... somebody on the phone for you.

.... a problem with TV.

.... too late to go out.

.... a funny film on the video.

Whats that noise? - ... the wind.

:

, .- Where there is a will, there is a way.

. There is no smoke without a fire.

( ) There is no use crying over spilt milk.

 

4

Present Simple Tense ( )

We use the present simple tense for things we do regularly, always, sometimes, every day, etc. ( , , , ).

Positive ( )

I live in London.

We live in London.

You live in London.

They live in London.

He lives in London.

She Lives in London.

It lives in London too.

The question, short answer and negative are made with the present tense of the verbs do, does (, do, does).

Negative ( )

I do not live in Moscow.

We do not live in Moscow.

You do not live in Moscow.

They do not live in Moscow.

He does not live in Moscow.

She does not live in Moscow

It does not live in Moscow

Question ()

Where do I live?

Where do you live?

Where do we live?

Where do they live?

Where does he live? Where does she live? Where does it live?

Yes/No questions ( Yes No.

Do I live in Paris? Do we live in Paris? Do they live in Paris? Do you live in Paris?

Does he live in Paris? Does she live in Paris? Does it live in Paris?

Ansswers ( ).

Yes, I do. No, I dont.

Yes, he does. No, he doesnt.

Question words ( ).

How do you travel to work? (, )

How long does the journey take? ( , ,)

How many people travel by bus? ( )

How often does Joy see Janet? ( )

What time do you have lunch? ( , )

When does Joy arrive? ( )

:

is a businessman, isn't he? They are businessmen, aren't they?

You speak English, don't you? He speaks English, doesn't he? They spoke about it, didn't they?

I have done this work, haven't I? He'll do this work, won't he? He can do this work, can't he? He is going to do it, isn't he?

He isn't a businessman, is he?

They aren't businessmen, are

they?

You don't speak English, do you?

He doesn't speak English, does he?

They didn't speak about it, did

they?

I haven't done this work, have I?

He won't do this work, will he?

He cannot do this work, can he?

He isn't going to do it, is he?

IMPERATIVES ( )

Speak English, please. Dont speak English please.

Look in the mirror before you drive off.

Have some more tea.

Please do not lean out of the window.

Try again.

Cheer up.

Dont worry.

Dont sign the document.

Do be quiet!

Dont be silly!

Lets have a drink.

Lets meet at 10.30.

 

 

5

MODAL VERBS

CAN, MAY, MUST

,

1) to:

I can do it myself.

2) :

Can you do it yourself? You can not do it yourself.

3) s:

He can play piano.

can , .

must , :

You must keep the rule.

may , , .

You may come in.

They may return tomorrow.

should , , , c .

We should protect the planet.

have to , , , .

Politicians have to make speeches.

 

 

1. , ( ) , :

hear, listen, speak French, play golf, make, sing, dance, swim, talk, work, drive, jump, ride a horse, translate, cook.

2. :

Can you speak Japanese? - Yes, _______

Will you bring your friend? - Yes, ______

Could Tom find his glasses? - No , ______

Should the children come home early? - Yes, ______

May I sit here?- No, ____

Can ducks swim under water? - Yes ____

Can you remember their phone number? - No, _____

3.., , :

Get up early, make breakfast, go to work, go to school, make a telephone call,

buy some food, write to, invite guests, visit a dentist/

 

4. , , ( might)

go to the cinema stay at home

listen to music do some washing

have dinner at home go to a restaurant

watch TV read a magazine

go to bed early play at the computer

:

1. :

1. . ?

2. . .

3. , . , .

4. . .(cut it down)

5. . , .

6. ?

7. 5 .

8. .

2. :

1. ?

2. .

3. ?

4. . .

5. .

6. - . - .

7. ?

8. .

9. .

10. .

11. .

12. .

13. ?

14. . .

3. :

1. .

2. .

3. ?

4. ?

5. .

6. , .

7. , - .

8. .

9. , .

10. , .

11. ?

12. ?

13. , .

14. .

15. , .

16. ? .

17. .

18. --.

19. . - . , .

20. ?

21. .

VERB + OBJECT + INFINITIVE

I WANT YOU TO DO IT

( ߠ , )

I want you to be happy.

He wants me to go to the bank.

She wants him to pay the bill.

We also use the structure Verb+ somebody + to with:

advise, expect, ask, tell, force, invite, warn, mean, allow, forbid, need, order, persuade, help, cause, remind, leave, teach, would like.

 

Present progressive Tense.

 

We use the present progressive to talk about things which are happening now.

Positive and Negative.

I am

He

She

It

is (not)

+ing

writing

now.

We

You

They

are

Question.

am I
What is

he

she

it

+ ing

doing?

are

we

you

they

Spelling.

Go + ing = going type + ing = typing

talk + ing = talking write + ing = writing

short vowel + one consonant but long vowel + on consonant

begin + n + ing = beginning read + ing = reading

get + t + ing = getting feel + ing = feeling

 

1. . .

1 (I / wash / my hair) ...I'm not washing my hair..................................................

2 (it / snow) .....It is snowing................................................................................

3 (1/sit/on a chair) ..................................................................................................

4 (I/eat) ..................................................................................................................

5 (it / rain)...............................................................................................................

6 (I / learn / English) ..............................................................................................

7 (I / listen / to the radio) .......................................................................................

8 (the sun / shine) ...................................................................................................

9 (I / wear/ shoes) .................................................................................................

10 (I / smoke / a cigarette) ....................................................................................

11 (I/ read / a newspaper) ....................................................................................

2. 'What... doing?' .

1 (he) ...What is he doing......................... ? 3 (I) ................................................ ?

2 (they) What ................................... doing? 4 (your wife)................................... ?

3. 'Where ... going?'.

1 (we) ...Where are we going.............................................................................. ?

2 (those children) ................................................................................................. ?

3 (the girl with long hair) ..................................................................................... ?

4 (the man on the bicycle) .................................................................................... . ?

4. (Yes, I am / No, it isn't etc.).

1 Are you watching TV? ..No, I'm not......

2 Are you wearing shoes? .........................

3 Are you wearing a hat? ..........................

4 Is it raining? ..........................................

5 Are you eating something? ..........................................

6 Are you feeling well? ..................................................

7 Is the sun shining? .......................................................

8 Is your mother watching you? ......................................

 

 

6

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE DEGREES OF ADJECTIVES

( )

1. Short adjectives (1syllable) ( )

adjective comparative superlative

( ) ( )

cheap +er = cheaper +est = cheapest

young +er = younger +est = youngest

short +er = shorter +est = shortest

wide +er = wider +est = widest

small +er =smaller +est = smallest

2.   Short adjective ending in one vowel + one consonant

( )

big +g +er = bigger +g +est = biggest

fat +t +er = fatter +t +est = fattest

slim +m+er = slimmer +m +est = slimmest

hot +t +er = hotter +t +est = hottest

thin +n +er = thinner +n +est = thinnest

3.   Adjectives ending in er, ow, etc (2 syllables) ( )

clever +er = cleverer +est = cleverest

narrow +er = narrower +est = narrowest

shallow +er = swallower +est = swallowest

4. Adjectives ending in y (2 syllables)

easy +ier = easier +iest = easiest

heavy +ier = heavier +iest = heaviest

early +ier = earlier +iest = earliest

funny +ier = funnier +iest = funniest

happy +ier = happier +iest = happiest

5    Adjectives ending on ous, ing, ful, ed ( 2 syllables) and long adjectives (3/4 syllables)

boring more boring most boring

famous more famous most famous

modern more modern most modern

polite more polite most polite

tired more tired most tired

expensive more expensive most expensive

comfortable more comfortable most comfortable

6. Irregular adjectives

 

good better best

bad worse worst

far further furthest

much/many more most

little less least

7. As as, not as/so as

 

He is as rich as his brother.

Im as clever as my uncle.

Mary is not as/so nice as her sister.

Is the weather not so hot as this in New York?

8. The the

The more we learn, the more we know. , .

The sooner, the better. , .

9. Older than more expensive than

He is two years older than his brother.

My car is more expensive than his.

10. Its twice/three times/four times as long/light/heavy/high as

The road is twice as long as that one.

Some useful idioms of comparison:

As good as gold () As old as the hills ()

As busy as bee () As cold as ice ()

As changeable as weather ( )

7

PAST SIMPLE ( )

We use the past tense to tell stories about the past. We also use it when the time when something happened is important ( ).

Past Indefinite :

1.    , , . Past indefinite , , . , . Past Indefinite , yesterday , last week , an hour ago , the other day , on Monday , in 1998 1998 , during the lesson ..

I spoke to him the other day. .

came at five o'clock. .

called when I was , .

at the Institute.

2. :

!eft the hotel, took a taxi ,

and drove to the theatre, .

When I arrived at the railway , station, I went to the booking- office and bought a ticket, .

3. , , :

Last winter I spent a lot of time in the library, .

Past Indefinite used [ju:sd] to:

Last winter I used to spend a lot of time in the library.

Past Indefinite Tense

1. Past Indefinite Tense ( to) -ed :

to live - I lived; to work - I worked; to expect - I expected.

-ed [d], [t] [id] :

) , ( d) [d]:

lived [livd] informed [i'nfo:md]

answered ['a:nsad] followed [foloud]

b) ( t) [t]:

helped [helpt], asked [a:skt], finished [fmifl]

c) d t [id]:

waited [weitid], intended [intendid], wanted [wantid]

Past Indefinite : to speak - I spoke [spouk], to begin - I began ; to sell - I sold [sould]; to lose - I lost [lost].

2. Past Indefinite Tense to do (did) ( to), :

Did I work? Did I speak?

Did he work? Did he speak?

3. Past Indefinite Tense to do (did), not , not :

I did not work. I did not speak.

He did not work. He did not speak.

4. - Past Indefinite Tense not :

Did I not work? Did you not work? Did he not work?

Regular verbs (堠 Irregular verbs (

) )

work+ed=worked be was,were

type+d=typed do - did

stop+p+ed=stopped have - had

stay+ed=stayed can - could

clean+ed=cleaned go - went

live+d=lived write - wrote

like+d=liked get - got

start+ed=started, etc. sell sold, etc.

Positive ( )

I/you/he/she/we/they worked in London in 1995.

I/you/he/she/we/they went to London in 1995.

Negative ( )

We use didnt + infinitive (without to) in all persons.

I/you/he/she/we/they didnt work in London in 1995.

I/you/he/she/we/they didnt go to London in 1995.

Yes/No questions Short answers

( 젠 ( )

Yes, No)

Did I/you/he/she/we/they work in London in 1995? Yes, I did./No I didnt.

Did I/you/he/she/we/they go to London in 1995? Yes, we did./No, we didnt.

Special questions ( , when, why, where, how etc.)

When did I/you/he/she/we/they work in London? I worked in London in 1995.

Where did I/you/he/she/we/they go in 1995? I went to London in 1995.

Time expressions

night weekend

Saturday morning

last week yesterday afternoon

month evening

year summer

In 1987, in May, two days ago, from till, all day long, the whole day

:

1.. .

a.   Yesterday he (go) to work by car.

b.   I (watch) television yesterday evening.

c.    He (write) a letter to Jane last week.

d.   The accident (happen) last Sunday afternoon.

e.    When I was a child, I (want) to be a judge.

f.    We (leave) home at 8.30 this morning.

g.   They (do) their shopping last Monday.

h.   Ann (take) photographs last Sunday.

2. , .

: I saw John but I didnt see Mary.

a.   They worked on Monday but they on Tuesday.

b.   We went to the shop but we to the bank.

c.    She had e pen but she a paper.

d.   Jack did Spanish at University but he English.

e.    I sent a letter to tom but I to Mike.

f.    She went to the post office but she to the hospital.

g.   I spoke English when I was a child but I French.

h.   I ate meat yesterday but I fish.

i.    He read a newspaper yesterday evening but he a magazine.

3. .

:. I watched TV last night. And you? Did you watch TV last night?

a.   I enjoyed the party. And you? .

b.   I had a good holiday. And you? .

c.    I got up early this morning. And you? .

d.   I slept well last night. And you? .

e.    I worked hard yesterday. And you? .

f.    I went to bed at eleven oclock yesterday. And you? .

g.   I saw Tom at the party. And you? .

h.   I sent three telegrams yesterday. And you? .

i.    I passed the exam yesterday. And you? .

4. , ( ) .

: (watch TV) I watched TV yesterday. I didnt watch TV yesterday.

a.   (get up before 7.30)

b.   (have a shower)

c.    (buy magazine)

d.   (speak English)

e.    (do an examination)

f.    (eat meat)

g.   (meet my friend)

5. .

: He went abroad . Where did he go?

a.   I met somebody. Who ?

b.   Henry arrived. What time ?

c.    She saw somebody. Who ?

d.   They wanted something. What ?

e.    The party finished. What time ?

f.    He went home early. Why ?

g.   We had dinner. What ?

h.   It cost a lot of money. How much ?

6. e .

 

-               Where were you yesterday morning?

-               I discussed a lot of problems with my manager. And you?

-               I saw many interesting things yesterday.

-               Did you buy any postcards?

-               Paul had an appointment at 11 oclock with Mr. Brown.

-               No, he didnt have an appointment at 11 oclock with Mr. Brown. He had an appointment with Mr. White.

-              

7. , :

 

a.   What did you have for breakfast yesterday?

b.   Did you enjoy your breakfast?

c.    What did you do after breakfast?

dDid you go to work?

8. .

: When did you last have a holiday? - Last July.

a.   see a video

b.   go shopping

c.    give someone a present

d.   take a photograph

e.    send a letter

f.    see a friend

g.   have a dinner at a restaurant

h.   lose something

i.    go abroad

j.    stay away from classes

k.   tell a lie

l.    discuss a difficult problem with you friend

m.  buy a coat

n.   get up late in the morning

o.   be late to work

p.   make a phone call

q.   pay a bill

r.    cash a cheque

9.. , .

: I could ride a bike when I was five.

10. , .

: I couldnt use a computer when I was five.

Present Perfect

( )

 

We use the present perfect tense for an action in the past with a result now ( , , ).

We use the present perfect with ever, never, already, just yet, recently, for since, etc.

have/has + past participle of the verb

Positive ( )

I/we/you/they have done/finished

He/she/it has done/finished

Negative ( )

I/we/you/they have not (havent) done/finished

He/she/it has not (hasnt) done/finished

Question ()

Have I/we/you/they done/finished?

Has he/she/it done/finished?

Examples:

I have just done my work.

I havent done my work yet.

He has travelled all over the world.

They have already come home.

Irregulars ( )

Base form Past Simple Past participle

Be was/were been

Become became become

Begin began begun

Build built built

Can could been able

Come came come

Cost cost cost

Do did done

Get got got

Go went gone

Have had had

Know knew known

Learn learnt learnt

Make made made

Read read read

Say said said

Take took taken

Write wrote written

HAVE GOT/ HAVE

Have got = Have ( , ).

have got . have got .

Ive got a bad cold.

I had a bad cold last week.

have got have

Positive Positive

I have got some money I have some money

You have got some money You have some money

We have got some money We have some money

They have got some money They have some money

He has got some money He has some money

She has got some money She has some money

It has got some money It has some money

Negative Negative

I havent got any money I dont have any money

You havent got any money You dont have any money

We havent got any money We dont have any money

They havent got any money They dont have any money

He hasnt got any money He doesnt have any money

She hasnt got any money She doesnt have any money

It hasnt got any money It doesnt have any money

Questions Questions

Have I got any money? Do I have any money?

Have you got any money? Do you have any money?

Have we got any money? Do we have any money?

Have they got any money? Do they have any money?

Has he got any money? Does he have any money?

Has she got any money? Does she have any money?

Has it got any money? Does it have any money?

How much money have you got? How much money do you have?

How many credit cards have I got? How many credit cards do I have?

Short answers Short answers

Yes, I have./ No, I havent. Yes, I do./ No I dont.

Yes, she has./ No, she hasnt. Yes, she does./ No, she doesnt.

8

Past Continuous (Progressive) Tense

( )

, - , , , .

to be ing .

:

He is sleeping now. He was sleeping when I came.

. , .

I am reading now. I was reading when he phoned.

. , .

They are having dinner now. They were having dinner at 7 last night. . 7 .

was (were).

:

He was watching TV when she came.

Was he watching TV when she came?

He was not watching TV when she came.

What was he doing when she came?

What was he watching when she came?

.

1.   :

Steve usually cleans his suit on Saturdays.

(when Jeff phoned)

Was Steve cleaning his suit when Jeff phoned?

1.   Ann usually cooks dinner at 7 oclock. (when Peter phoned)

2.   Jill usually goes to the library every evening. ( when we saw her)

3.   Liz plays the violin every day.( when mother came home)

4.   Mr Brown reads his newspaper after supper. (when the telephone rang)

5.   She usually does her homework in the afternoon. ( when Ann opened the door)

6.   Jane sometimes drinks coffee with Mike. ( when her husband saw them)

2. .

Thomas is a student. He's staying with the Taylors, an English family.

Thomas: Hello, Mrs Taylor. Can you help me? I'm doing my homework and I can't understand this word.

Mrs Taytor: Which one? Oh... thats difficult. I can't help you now.... I'm watching something...

Thomas: Oh? What are you watching?

Mrs Taylor: I'm watching a cowboy film.

Thomas: Can Mr Taylor help me?

Mrs Taylor: No, he can't now, Thomas. He's reading.

Thomas: What's he reading?

Mrs Taytor: He's reading a magazine.

Thomas: What about Kate?

 

Mrs Taylor: Oh, she can't help you now... she's phoning someone.

 

Thomas: Oh? Who's she phoning?

 

Mrs Taylor: She's phoning her boyfriend... you're asking a lot of questions tonight, Thomas!

 

Thomas: Am I?... Well,

I am practicing my English!

, , .( .)

 

: When Thomas asked Mrs Taylor to help him, she was watching a cowboy film.

3. , 7 .

What are Jill and John doing?- They are playing tennis.

1. Mr Smith/his car

2. Mary/a letter

3. Mr and Mrs Jones/television

4. Bob/a letter

5. Arthur and Mike/ a box

6. Mrs Brown/the dishes

7. Tony/beer

drinking

watching

carrying

writing

typing

cleaning

washing

.

.

   at

8 oclock

10.30

midnight etc.

I start work at 8 oclock.

The shops close at 5.30 p.m.

   on

Sunday(s)

25 April

New years Day

Goodbye! See you on Friday.

I dont work on Sundays.

The concert is on 22 November.

- In

April / June

1985 / 1750

(the) summer / spring

Im going on holiday in October.

Jill left school in 1995.

The garden is lovely in spring

also

at the weekend

at night

at Christmas /Easter

at the end of ...

at the moment

in the morning

in the afternoon

in the evening

but

on Monday morning

on Friday evening, etc.

Are you going away at the weekend?

-    I cant sleep at night.

-    In Britain children get presents at Christmas.

-    Im going on holiday at the end of October.

-    Are you busy at the moment?

-    I always feel good in the morning.

-    Do you often go out in the evening?

-    Im meeting Jill on Monday morning.

-    Are you doing anything on Friday?

   in five minutes / in a few days / in six weeks / in two years etc.

- Hurry! The train leaves in five minutes.

- Goodbye. Ill see you in a few days.

   at on in We do not use at/ on / in before:

this ... (this morning / this week...)

every ...( every day / every week...)

last ... (last August / last week ...)

next ... ( next Monday / next week ...)

- Theyre going on holiday next Monday.

- Last summer we went to Scotland.

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE ( )

 

The Past Perfect Tense( ) , .

:

I had already had dinner when they arrived.

, .

He had finished his work by 2 oclock yesterday.

2 .

to have 2 ( ) c .

had:

Had she taken that bag before you asked her?

Had they done the shopping by 3 p.m. yesterday?

Why had she told him everything before his wife saw them?

not, had:

The post had not arrived when she went downstairs.

.

1. , :

1. I am not hungry. I have already had dinner.

2.   He is not tired. He has already had a sleep.

3.   She is not busy. She has already done her homework.

4.   She doesnt take the umbrella. The rain has already stopped.

5.   They are not in a hurry. The train has already left.

6.   We do not have to take a taxi. The car has already come.

2. .

1.   , , .

2.   , .

3.   , .

4.   , .

5.   , .

6.   , .

7.   ,

9

THE FUTURE ACTION

Future Simple

Give me your bag. Ill carry it for you ( 򠠠 )

Present Continuous

Im having an appointment tonight ( )

Going to ( - )

We are going to move to London.

Future Indefinite Tense

Future indefinite Tense

1. Future Indefinite Tense shall will ( to). Shall 1- , a will :

I (we) shall work

he (she, it) , . .

, , ' } will work you (they)

2. Future Indefinite :

Shall I (we) work? Will he (you, they) work?

3. Future Indefinite not, :

I (we) shall not work. He (you, they) will not work.

4. - Future indefinite not :

Shall I (we) not work? Will he (you, they) not work?


--

I shall (will) work

he (she, it)

will work

Shall (Will) I work?

Will he (she, it) work?

I shall ( will) not work

he (she, it) will not work

Shall (Will) I not work?

Will he (she, it) not work?

5. :

I'll [ail] work I shan't [ja:nt] work Shan't I work?

he'll [hil] work I" II not work

she'll [j'i:l] work he won't [wount] work Won't he (she, it) work?

we'll [wi:l] work he'll not work

You'll [ju:l] work she won't work Shan't we work?

They'll [6eil] work she'll not work

it won't work it will not work Won't you work?

we shan't work we' II not work Won't they work?

you won't work you'll not work

they won't work they'll network

Future Indefinite Tense

Future Indefinite Tense :

1. , . , . Future Indefinite Tense , :

will return to Moscow

in a few days. .

We shall not see him til! Monday. . They will take English lessons twice a week. .

. Future Indefinite :

will send us a telegram as soon as the steamer arrives.

If I receive a letter from him, I' II let you know.

,

.

,

.

 

Future Indefinite, () :

) to be going to... - -.

I am going to send him a telegram. .

( .)

is going to spend this summer vocation in the Crimea. . ( ...)

) to be + (+ing) ( )

is taking his examination on Friday. .

( .)

) Present Indefinite Tense:

The steamer sails tomorrow. .

) shall/will + , )

will be meeting us at the station. ( )

.

I shall be writing to him tomorrow. ( ) .

Future Indefinite Tense. to be going to - .

If and When

present simple, future simple.

When (if) he reads this book he will give it to me.

() , .

I shall send him a telegram, if I do ,

not receive an answer to my letter, .

if you see ... / if I am ... etc. for the future. For example:

- If you see Ann this evening, can you ask her to phone me?

We say: if you see (not 'if you will see'), if I am (not 'if I will be'). Use the present (not 'will) after if:

- If I'm late this evening, don't wait for me. (not 'If I will be late')

- What shall we do if it rains? (not 'if it will rain')

- If I don't feel well tomorrow, I'll stay at home.

-When I get home this evening, I'm going to have a shower.

1.. if when:

1... I'm late this evening, don't wait for me.

2 ........ I don't see you tomorrow, I'll phone you.

3. Do you mind ........ I close the window?

4 _..... I get up in the morning, usually drink a cup of coffee

5. Have something to eat. ........ you don't eat now, you'll be hungry later

6 John is still 1 at school. ........ he leaves school, he wants to go to university.

7 Be careful! ........ you aren't careful, you'll fall.

 

2. Im going to .. or Ill

1.   What are you going to do when you finish college?

2.   What sort of job do you hope to get?

3.   Where will you live?

4.   Where will you live if your job is far away?

5.   How will you spend your first months salary?

6.   Are you going to travel to other countries?

7.   Where do you hope to go?

10

Taking phone calls. ( )

1.   Can I help you?

2.   Who is calling?

3.   What name, please?

4.   Can I have ?

5.   Could I speak to ?

6.   Id like to ?

1.   Good morning, Park hotel. Can I help you?

-     Id like to book a room for three nights.

-     Yes, madam. Could I have your name, please?

-     Mrs. Andrews.

2.   -___________Garden restaurant. Can I help you?

-     _____reserve a table for six, for Wednesday evening.

-     Yes, what name ,please?

-     My name is Jackson.

3.   Good evening. Fratellis.

-     ____speak to the manager ____?

- Yes, who is calling?

-     Mr. Evans.

4.   Good morning, Carlton Hotel. Can I help you?

-     Hello,______reservations , please?

-     ________please.

 

Make sentences.

Example: morning / can / help

Good morning! Can I help you?

1.   afternoon /can / help

2.   could / have / name

3.   can / have / reservations

4.   could / speak / manager

5.   could / book / single room / two nights

6.   could / speak / John

7.   could / reserve table / for six

8.   can / have / room service

B. making requests with Id like to

Make sentences.

Example: book / single room / three nights

Id like to book a single room for three nights.

1.   book / double room / two nights

2.   reserve / table for two / Tuesday evening

3.   book / single room / four nights

4.   speak / manager

5.   reserve / table for four / Saturday / 8 p.m.

6.   send / an application form

7.   invite / guests / weekend

8.   listen / cassette / jass

New words to use:

to book manager number table

double name reserve application form

full night single room service

S U M M A R Y

Now you can ( ):

Answer the telephone politely ( )

- Good morning. Can I help you?

Ask for things ( -)

- Could I have your name, please?

Understand, what people want ( , )

- Id like a single room.

- Could I speak to the manager, please?

Ask who is on the phone ( , )

- Who is calling?

Extra words: Days of the week

Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

Numbers twenty three( but the twenty third)

Giving information.

1.   The hotel is in the center of the city.

2.   Theres a sauna.

3.   There are two bars.

4.   The cost is $ 16. 50.

5.   Im Mr. Evans.

6.   My names Evans.

. ,

My name (1)_____ Mr Black. I (2)____ the manager of the Savoy Hotel. The hotel (3) _____ in Main Street. There (4) _____ 100 double rooms and 20 single rooms. (5) __________ a bar and a restaurant. There (6) ______ table dhote meals at lunchtime and table dhote and a la carte in the evening.

New words to use .

a la carte exchange bureau per

bar exit sauna

car park disable facilities special

center information street

city meal swimming pool

coffee shop mans toilet table dhote

course menu womens toilet

Extra words

Currencies: Pounds, Dollars, Francs, Marcs, Crowns, Yen, Pesetas

Numbers.

Taking reservations. ( )

1)   What time do you serve lunch?

2)   Are you open every day?

3)   from Tuesday to Sunday

4)   on Monday

5)   at 1 p.m.

6)   What name is it?

7)   How many for?

Questions and answers in the Present Simple tense are for routines, timetable, and everyday state of things.

Examples:

Does he speak English?

Yes, he does. No he doesnt.

Do you serve lunch?

Yes, we do. No, we dont.

What time do you serve lunch?

We serve lunch from 12.00 to 2.30.

How much does a single room costs?

It costs 55 pounds.

A. Answer these questions. Use short answers.

Example: Do you serve lunch?

Yes we do.

1)   Do you serve dinner? No,__

2)   Do you speak English? Yes,__

3)   Do you have a single room for tonight? No,__

4)   Does the waiter speak English? Yes,__

5)   Does the hotel have a sauna? No,__

6)   Does the bar open at six? Yes,__

7)   Does he live in London? No,__

8)   Do you know the answer? Yes,__

9)   Does he fill in the application form? Yes,__

10)      Does Kate like the weather here? Yes,__

B. Make questions and answers.

Example: What time/serve/lunch/12.30 to 2.30

What time do you serve lunch?

We serve lunch from 12.30 to 2.30.

1.   What time /serve dinner

2.   How much /single room/cost/65 pounds

3.   What time /bar open/seven oclock

4.   How much /small beer/cost/1.55 pounds

5.   What time/ have lunch/12.00-13.00

6.   When / post office / close / 6 p.m.

New words

a.m. every day head waiter oclock

room close get up leave

open serve closed go

lunch p.m. travel post office

Activity.

Work in pairs. Ask and answer questions about your routines/

What time you ________________get up?

_______ __have breakfast?

________leave your home?

_____ get to your office?

How ______________ travel to college / Institute?

What time ___________have lunch?

__________go home?

What ________do in the evening?

What time __________go to bed?

Extra words :

Seasons summer, autumn, winter, spring

Meals breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper

Titles Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms.

Restaurant staff Maitre d hotel, waitress, waiter

 

Passive Voie ( )

, , . , .

to be , , Past Participle ( ) .

:

Active Voice Passive Voice

They answered my question My question was answered at once

at once. (by them).

Im asked () Im being asked

()

I have been asked ()

I was asked ()

I was being asked ( )

I had been asked ( )

I will be asked ()

I will have been asked ( )

English is spoken all over the world.

Are cars made in your country?

He wasnt injured in the accident.

The thieves werent seen by anyone.

Ive been robbed!

Has my car been repaired?

Driving should be banned in city centres.

We will quote this price.

We will not quote this price

This price will be quoted

.

This price will not be quoted.

.

We have already quoted this price.

We have not quoted this price yet.

This price has already been quoted.

.

This price has not been quoted yet.

.

CAN

We can quote a lower price.

We cannot quote a lower price.

A lower price can be quoted.

.

A lower price cannot be quoted.

.

Social English:

     Do you want coffee?

     Good idea. Could I see the wine list, please?

     Would you like a dessert?

     Yes, Id like some cheese cake, please.

     How about some wine?

     No, I dont think so.

     Certainly, madam.

     What do you recommend?

     May I suggest Martini dry?

1.   Fill in the blanks using on, in, with:

 

2.   He put the food ___ the table.

3.   She likes biscuits ____ cheese.

4.   The wine bottle is ____ the bucket ___ the table.

5.   Id like a green salad ____ my steak.

6.   I dont like cream ___ my coffee.

7.   Do you have busy time when people are ____ holiday?

8.   Sarah isnt interested ____ sport.

9.   She is always very friendly ____ us.

10.       What happened ___ Mary last night?

Id like a beer. Ill get one.

Id like some bread. Ill get some.

This spoon is dirty. Ill get another.

The water jug is empty. Ill get some more.

 

Respond to the following, using Ill get;

1.   There is no pepper on the table.

2.   Id like a glass of water.

3.   My fork is on the floor.

4.   Can I have an ash-tray?

5.   Another cup of tea, please.

6.   This wine glass is not clean.

7.   Weve no bread left.

Extra words:

Apple black-currant strawberry orange

Pine- apple grape cherry plum

Apricot pear lemon raison

Raspberry grapefruit banana kiwi

Peach gooseberry blackberry

It consists of Its terribly salty.

It contains I dont like to complain, but

It is made of Its quite uneatable.

My apologies, sir.

Can I get you something else?

The passive is often used to describe how things are made or done.

Example: The chef makes butter from flour, eggs and milk.

Butter is made from flour, eggs and milk.

1.   We make French dressing from oil and vinegar.

2.   The restaurant serves lunch from 12 to 3.

3.   The barman makes dry martinis from gin and vermouth.

4.   The wine waiter opens the wine at the table.

5.   The chef makes sauce from flour, milk, butter and cheese.

6.   The waiters bring the dishes from the kitchen on trays.

The Simple Past tense . :

1.   They ( arrive) at the hotel yesterday.

2.   She ( book ) the table by phone.

3.   The chef (cook ) a wonderful meal.

4.   The butter ( melt) in the hot pan.

5.   We (finish) our first course ten minutes ago.

6.   He (thank) us for a nice evening.

7.   It (rain) hard last night.

8.   They ( open) the restaurant two weeks ago.

Past Simple : questions and short answers.

Questions in the Simple Past use did and the infinitive of the verb.

Short answers use did or didnt

Examples: Did you go to Oxford?

Yes, I did / No, I didnt

:

1.They arrived last night.

1.   She spoke to the manager.

2.   He telephoned the hotel.

3.   Mr. Dreyton called from Italy.

4.   She ordered a dry martini.

5.   I went to work at 8 in the morning yesterday.

6.   She stopped the boy and asked him the way.

7.   He played tennis on Sunday.

8.   They lived in France in 1998.

9.   I wanted to cook an apple pie.

Extra words:

Shelfish kidney tasteless

Lobster liver stringy

Crab heart corked

Crayfish tripe overcooked

. , :

on, with, in, behind, for, from, at, to:

 

1.   All the food is cooked ____ this kitchen.

2.   The pastry chef is responsible ___ the hot desserts.

3.   You will help ___ the pasta sauces.

4.   The ovens are ___ the preparation areas.

5.   You will work here ___ me.

6.   We prepare sauces _____ the pasta.

7.   The new commis came ____ the kitchen.

8.   The new commis is ___ the early shift.

9.   You start ___ 7 a.m.

10.     You have a break ____ 11 ___ 12.

Extra words :

Receiver local call

Dial long distance / trunk call

International code collect call

Country code telex

Telephone book / directory Fax machine

Payphone callbox

Answerphone booth

. , need : - , - -

1.   My jacket needs cleaning.

2.   I need some buttons sewn on

3.   You neednt

4.   I dont need it until

5.   Ill send someone up.


.

: 1 ; 2- 3- ( 5 )

1.

( 10 , .. )

1

1.   to be:

I in my first year.

a.   am

b.   are

c.    is

2.   , to be :

a.   Mother is at home.

b.   What are you doing?

c.    Im a businessman.

3.   :

There is no telephone in the room.

a.   .

b.   .

4.   :

a.   Were there many people in the bank?

b.   There were many people in the bank?

c.    In the bank there were many people?

5.   to be:

There a few hundred judges, trained as barristers.

a.   is

b.   am

c.    are

6.   , :

are lawyers.

a.   I

b.   he

c.    they

7.   .

is at the entrance.

a.   their parents

b.   My car

c.    my friends and I

8.   :

There are at least 50 000 solicitors in Britain.

a.   , , 50 000 .

b.   50 000 .

9.   .

They at the court yesterday.

a.   were

b.   are

c.    will be

10. to be:

You studying law.

a.   was

b.   are

c.    is

2

1.   :

Do you know foreign language?

a.   any

b.   some

c.    something

2.   :

We have money, so we cant go on holiday this year.

a.   little

b.   few

c.    many

3.   , . ?

We usually drink much water in hot weather.

a.   a lot of

b.   many

c.    few

4.   :

I invited my friend to place.

a.   me

b.   mine

c.    my

5.   :

There is like home.

a.   none

b.   no

c.    nothing

6.   :

Is this credit card ?

a.   yours

b.   your

c.    the yours

7. : many, few, a lot of, some.

a.   They have read 10 English books in the original.

b.   He likes to spend much time doing crosswords.

c.    There is no news today.

8. B

He has never been to foreign countries.

a.   no

b.   any

c.    some

9. :

I have time, I can wait.

a.   many

b.   little

c.    a plenty of

10. .

people know the right way to do it, because it is so difficult.

a.   little

b.   few

c.    much

3

1. :

Shes university teacher.

a.   the

b.   an

c.    a

2. :

I like small animals.

a.   a

b.   the

c.    (nothing )

3. :

tea is cold.

a. the

a.   (nothing)

b.   a

4. :

Mississippi is the longest river in the USA.

a.   a

b.   the

c.    (nothing)

5. :

ice-cream is made of milk and sugar.

a.   (nothing)

b.   the

c.    a

6. :

On Monday we open at 9 oclock.

a.   a

b.   (nothing)

c.    the

7. :

English are reserved.

a.   (nothing)

b.   a

c.    the

8. :

There are two cinemas in our town - Regal and Plaza.

a.   the

b.   a

c.    (nothing)

9. :

Britain is island.

a.   an

b.   a

c.    the

4

1. :

We six days a week.

a.   study

b.   studies

c.    are studying

2. , :

My friend travels a lot, ?

a.   isnt he ?

b.   doesnt he?

c.    doesnt he?

3. :

she go to the court every day?

a.   do

b.   is

c.    does

4. o :

Im writing a report.

a.   .

b.   .

5. .

This money enough to buy a new house.

a.   do

b.   is

c.    are

6.   :

There is nothing left, ?

a.   isnt there

b.   is there

c.    isnt it

7.   :

He goes abroad

a.   once a month

b.   at this moment

c.    next month

8.   :

British police not normally armed.

a.   was

b.   is

c.    are

9.   :

Look out of the window. It heavily.

a.   is raining

b.   rains

c.    rain

10. :

She speaks perfect English.

a.   So am I

b.   So do I.

c.    Im too.

5

1.   :

You worry about it.

a.   mustnt

b.   not must

c.    dont must

2.   :

He speak three foreign languages.

a.   can

b.   may

c.    must

3.   :

Must I come tomorrow? No, you

a.   cant

b.   neednt

c.    mustnt

4.   :

You not go out, the lecture is not over yet.

a.   can

b.   may

c.    have to

5.   :

help me?

a.   Can you

b.   Do you can

c.    Can you to

6.   :

The sky is dark. It rain soon.

a.   has to

b.   should

c.    may

7.   :

Good! I work tomorrow.

a.   mustnt

b.   dont have to

c.    may not

8.   :

My parents want me to go in for law.

a.   .

b.   .

c.    , .

9.   :

I want you to invite him to the concert.

a.   , .

b.   .

c.    .

10. :

We expect you to settle her problem without delay.

a.   .

b.   , .

c.    , .

6

1.   :

Lets go by train. Its much .

a.   cheaper

b.   cheap

c.    more cheap

2. :

Is Alan than Jim?

a.   the tallest

b.   taller

c.    tall

3. :

New Years Day is popular in Britain than Christmas.

a.   little

b.   more little

c.    less

4. :

Its if you take the train.

a. quicker

a.   the quicker

b.   quick

5. :

Rome isnt as as Athens.

a.   older

b.   old

c.    oldest

6. :

I havent got as as you.

a.   the more money

b.   more money

c.    much money

7. :

Money is important but it isnt thing in life.

a. the most important

a.   the more important

b.   most important

8. :

Im not very interested in economics. Im in law.

a.   the most

b.   more

c.    most

9. :

The profits of this firm are much higher this year.

a.   .

b.   .

c.    .

10. :

Model A-25 is the worst model Ive ever known.

a.   -25 , - .

b.   -25 , - .

c.    -25 .

7

2.   :

you meet her at the station yesterday?

a.   Did

b.   Was

c.    Do

3.   , :

You went to the court last week, ?

a.   wasnt you

b.   didnt you

c.    wont you

4.   :

I my exams and can have a good time now.

a.   passed

b.   have passed

c.    am passing

5.   :

The prices by 20% since January.

a. have risen

b. rose

a.   raised

5. C :

They have come.

a.   .

b.   .

c.    .

6.   , :

He has committed a crime, ?

a.   wasnt he

b.   didnt he

c.    hasnt he

7.   :

I didnt know that it

a.   was raining

b.   is raining

c.    will be raining

8.   :

They didnt come .

a.   yet

b.   last night

c.    now

9.   O :

-.

a.   She didnt receive a letter of confirmation.

b.   She doesnt receive a letter of confirmation.

c.    She hasnt received a letter of confirmation.

10.       :

We met when we in France.

a.   were studying

b.   studied

c.    have studied.

8.1

1.   :

Ill see you Tuesday afternoon.

a.   in

b.   at

c.    on

2.   :

She was looking for her dog.

a.   .

b.   .

c.    .

3. :

Can you finish the job Friday?

a.   by

b.   till

c.    since

4. :

The criminals held the train and took all the money.

a.   up

b.   out

c.    over

5.   :

My mother suffers headaches.

a.   by

b.   from

c.    with

6.   :

John is interested politics.

a.   for

b.   about

c.    in

7. :

She invited him to her house making inquires about him.

a.   after

b.   on

c.    at

8. :

.

a.   He came in and looked at.

b.   He came in and looked around.

c.    He came in and looked for.

9. :

You can rely on her being honest.

a.   in

b.   for

c.    on

10. :

?

a.   When does the plane take off?

b.   When does the plane take on?

c.    When does the plane touch down?

8.2. in at.

1. Wheres Tina? Shes at work

2. Why didnt the bus-driver stop .......... the bus-stop?

3. Go straight on ........roundabout and turn right .......the church.

4. There was a big table ........the middle of the room.

5. Whats the longest river ........ the world?

6. Were there many people .......the concert on Friday?

7. My brother is studying mathematics ........ London University.

8. Where does your sister live? ..........Brussels

9. Did you read about the accident .....the newspaper?

10. Will you be ..........home tomorrow afternoon?

11. Munich is a large city ..........the south of Germany.

12. Do you work? No, Im still ..........school.

8.3. to in.

 

 

1. Wheres Jack? In bed.

2. Im going ..........the shop to buy some milk.

3. Tom went ...........the kitchen to make some coffee.

4. Wheres Tom? Hes ........the kitchen making some coffee.

5. Would you like to go ..........the theatre this evening?

6. I got a postcard from Sue this morning. Shes on holidays .... Switzerland.

7. John lives ......... a small village ....... the south-west of England.

8. What time do you usually go ...... bed?

9. Kevins sister is very ill. She is ..... hospital.

10. Excuse me, I must go ........ the toilet.

11. The train left Brussels at 7 oclock and arrived .....Paris at 9.30.

12. I was tired this morning. I stayed .......... bed until 10 oclock.

9

1. :

What time Pat and Peter for dinner tonight?

a.   are coming

b.   do come

c.    have come

2. :

Im meeting Lane after work .

a.   today

b.   every day

c.    sometimes

3. :

If you to our terms well give you a discount.

a. agreed

b. will agree

d.   agree

4. :

Give me a ring you know the time of your flight back.

a.   until

b.   as soon as

c.    since

5. :

If we dont hurry up well be late.

a.   , .

b.   , .

c.    , .

6. :

What do you usually do you come home?

a.   till

b.   when

c.    until

7.   :

If the weather is fine

a.   we shall have a good time.

b.   we should go to the country.

c.    they spent the day outside.

8.   :

If I the letter tomorrow, Ill phone you.

a.   receive

b.   will receive

c.    received

9.   :

If I meet her today I shall tell her the truth.

a.   , .

b.   , .

c.    , .

10.       :

Ill pay you back the money I get my next pay cheque.

a.   when

b.   before

c.    after

10

1.   :

.

a. will be examined

b. were examined

a.   are examined

2.   :

English almost in 45 countries of the world.

a.   speak

b.   is spoken

c.    are being spoken

3.   :

Visitors were reminded that it to take photographs in the museum.

a.   was forbidden

b.   is forbidden

c.    forbids

4.   :

:

a. My apartment will be stolen.

b. My apartment burgled.

a.   My apartment was burgled.

5.   :

Newspapers only in the evening today.

a.   were brought

b.   will be brought

c.    is brought

6.   :

The picture has been sold for & 3,000.

a.   &3,000.

b.   & 3,000.

c.    & 3,000.

7.   :

.

a.   are requested

b.   request

c.    were requested

8.   :

Two pictures from the museum last night.

a.   are stolen

b.   were stolen

c.    have been stolen

9.   :

The new building of Moscow University was being built

a.   when I entered the History faculty.

b.   now.

c.    lately

10. :

Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe.

a.   have been written

b.   was written

c.    is written


 

2. ( ):

 

1.   Write the biography of one of your favourite actors , writers or artists or a music group.

 

2.   A recent news story something that happened in your town, country or the world.

 

3.   Write the recipe off your favourite dish.

 

4.   Is there a generation gap between you and your parents?

 

5.   What are your plans for the nearest future and do you have long-termed plans?

 

6.   Give the descriptions of one of your visits to some other town , city or country.

 

7.   What would you advise a foreigner to see and do in your city?

 

8.   What do you know about Napoleon, Columbus, Elizabeth II, Thatcher?

 

9.   What should people on Earth do in order to save our planet?

 

10.       The most important event of the XX century.


3. :

 

1    What are you doing tonight ?

 

I dont know yet. Im in two minds.

 

2. Would you like to go out ? / Do you feel like going to

Yes , thats a good idea / That sounds like a good idea . / Well , I cant say

I feel like it really. / No , I dont think thats such a good idea. / I think I would rather stay at home.

 

3. Have you been to

Have you seen Andrew recently ?

 

No, I havent . He is away / Yes , I have . He is working hard, revising for the exams.

 

4. Have you heard about Peter ?

Whats the matter ? / What happened ? / I think he is all right . He is going abroad one of these days.

 

5. I am not very well today

Have you got caught cold ? / have you got temperature ? / Can I help you ?/ Youd better go home and take some medicine / Are you off color?/ You must have run down

 

6.   Is there any mineral water in the

Im afraid there isnt any. Ive just had the last bottle./ Im sorry , but there isnt any. / I hope there is. I bought it today.

 

7.   Are you good at computers ? / A user or more ? /

 

Im afraid not, but Im working hard at the moment. I hope to become a good user of it soon /

 

8.   Do you mind if I / open the window / smoke /

 

That would be fine / Ill be much obliged / No, thank you / Please , dont / Dont bother , Ill manage it. / Not at all at the moment . / I wouldnt mind

 

9.   Could you tell me the time , please ?

 

Im sorry , I dont know. I dont have a watch. / Oh , yes. Its exactly / It is nearly

Are you sure your watch is right ?

 

Yes , certainly / Im not sure. My watch is slow ( fast ) / I forgot to wind

the clock / watch .

 

10.       Could you tell me the way to ?

 

Go straight on / Follow the signs / Its a long way from here / Its quite a distance from here / You are going in the opposite direction / take the second turning on your left / Certainly , with pleasure / Could you give me a lift ?

 

11.       Could you pass me the book / the salt .../

 

Most willingly / Here you are. / That goes without saying / Certainly Im looking forward to pass you it.

 

12.       When does the train / arrive ?

When did the plane arrive / take off ?

 

at 11 p.m.

 

13.       Thanks a lot.

 

You are always welcome / That was a pleasure / No trouble at all / Im glad you liked it / Im the one who ought.

 

14.       Your new hairdo / haircut / bag / skirt , etc. looks nice

Do you really like it? / Thank you for the compliment / You are

flattering me / Thank you for telling me about it. / I like it myself.

 

15.       What does your best friend do ?

 

He works in the bank.

 

16. Where do you usually go on holiday ?

 

I go surfing , skiing / I go camping in the mountains / I go on a cruise / I go for a boat trip on the lake.

/ What about this year ? /

 

16.       You could take my umbrella .

 

No , thank you. Ive got my own / The rain has stopped / Ill be very thankful to you / Could I ? It would be very kind of you.

 

17.       Do you think I should buy this hat / go for a boat trip / ?

 

I dont know. Its up to you to decide. / Dont risk it / Think twice before you go.

 

18.       I cant wait any longer - lets

 

You may go then / lets take a taxi / lets phone Mike / lets hurry

 

19.       I cant find my pen anywhere .

 

You must have lost it / take my one / Its no great loss to you / It serves you right / That isnt typical for you ?

 

20.       Why didnt you come yesterday ?

 

Sorry I was invited to the party / Im awfully sorry , but it passed (went) out from my mind. / I didnt feel well / I was very busy / I was completely run down ( worn out ) /

 

21. Mary is 22 today .

 

Really ? My congratulations to her / Is she having a birthday party tonight ?

 

22. She has failed at the exams .

 

Bad luck. What went wrong ? / Oh, I see. Well , all I can say is better luck

next time .

 

23. What has happened to Mary ?

She has failed at the exams. / She has lost her job. / She got married not long ago.

 

24. Are you hungry / thirsty / cold / tired / ?

 

Yes , Id like something to drink / to eat / Im hungry as a hunter / Its very hot in here / Im not feeling well today / would you mind closing the door, please ? / Yes , Ive completely worn out.

 

25. John says he cant come

 

Its so typical of him / The same old story / Thats all we need / I wish he could / Im sick and tired of it.

 

26.       I bought a ticket for you.

 

Thats great . Ill go and get dressed at once / Its very kind (nice) of you / Its very considerate of you.

 

27.       Wonderful , its Friday at last !

 

Have a nice weekend / What are your plans ? / Have a nice time / A very enjoyable weekend to you .

 

28.       Do you know where the nearest bank is ?

( as in p. 8 )

 

30.       They said they could lend us some money.

 

It would be wonderful. / I appreciate your concern for me / Its very considerate of them / it does them credit / Good idea

 

31. You will have to help Ted with his job.

That goes without saying. As you say / I dont mind / What are you driving at ? / Not me / Whats the rush ? / All in good time / I hate to / Im looking forward to

 

31.       Do you know that

 

Napoleon was afraid of the cats ? / one hundred years ago people travelled by train ? / didnt watch TV ? / didnt travel by plane ? / made telephone calls ? / listened to records ?/ didnt write with ball - point pens ?/

 

Its incredible ! / Really ? I dont believe .

 

 

 


:


 
 
 
 
 
, . . .
 
 
  
  
   
 
 
bigmir)net TOP 100