: Category of number of the noun,

2. .

Regular one.

Plural more than one.

Regular Plurals:

1.    Nouns ending in vowels & voiced consonants - -s(bee-bees, dog-dogs, [z])

2.    Voiceless consonants - -s(book-books, [s])

3.    s,-sh,-ss,-ch,-x,-z - -es (actress-actresses, [iz])

4.    o: -es-hero-heroes. But:


a)    after a vowel bamboos, embryos, folios, kangaroos, radios, studios, zoos.

b)    In proper names Romeos, Eskimos, Filipinos.

c)    In abbreviations - kilos, photos, pros(professional).

d)    Also: pianos, concertos, dynamos, quartos, solos,tangos, tobaccos.

e)    In other cases the spelling is -oes (tomatoes, echoes, Negroes, potatoes, vetoes, torpedoes, embargoes)

f)    oes/-os : cargo(e)s, banjo(e)s, halo(e)s

5.   Consonant+y - -ies (sky-skies). But:


a)    After vowels, except nouns ending quy(day-days, soliloquy-soliloquies)

b)    In proper names: the two Germanys, the Kennedys, the Gatsbys

c)    In compounds: stand-bys, lay-bys.

d)    Penny: pence-the British currency( ), pennies-for individual coins.

6.   f(e)

a)    ves: wife-wives, life-lives, leaf-leaves, knife-knives, wolf-wolves, calf-calves, half-halves, loaf-loaves, self-selves, shelf-shelves.

b)    s: other nouns(proof-proofs, chief-chefs, safe-safes, cliff-cliffs, gulf-gulfs, dwarf-dwarfs, reef-reefs, grief-griefs

c)    ves/-s: scarf-scarfs/scarves, dwarf-dwarfs/dwarves, hoof-hoofs/hooves.

7.    th - -ths (mouth-mouths)

8.    in abbreviations - -s(M.P.-M.P.s) But: Ms(manuscript)-MSS, p.(page)-pp., Mr-

Irregular Plurals.

1.   By vowel change (Man-men, woman-women, tooth-teeth, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice, louse-lice).

2.   en (ox-oxen, child-children)

3.   Identical

a)   (sheep-sheep, swine-swine(), deer-deer, grouse-grouse(). But: 2 variants: fish-fish/fishes, pike-pile/pikes, trout-trout(s), carp-carp(s), salmon-salmon(s). The zero plural is more common to denote hunting quarries. (We caught a few fish, five salmon); the regular plural different individuals, species.

b)   Nationality nouns in ese, -ss: Chinese, Swiss. And: Englishmen = the English, Dutchmen = the Dutch.

c)   Latin & French nouns: series-series(, ), species-species(, , ), corps [ko:]-corps[ko:z] (, ).

d)   Pair, couple, dozen, score(20), stone(6,35 kg), head (): 2 dozen of children, dozens of children.


a)    Loans of Greek origin -(-is - -es: basis-bases, crisis-crises, analysis, thesis, parenthesis, axis[, , ], hypothesis, diagnosis; -on a: criterion criteria, phenomenon, -a ata: miasma-miasmata)

b)    Loans of Latin origin (-us - -i, -ora, -era: stimulus-stimuli, nucleus-nuclei[],radius-radii[], genus-genera[]; -a - -ae: formula-formulae(formulas), antenna, vertebra[]; -um - -a: datum-data[ ], stratum-strata[], erratum-errata[]; -es,-ix - -ices, -es: index-indices(indexes), appendix, matrix)

c)    Other loan nouns (-ean - -eaux: tableau-tableaux, bureau; -o - -i: tempo-tempi)

d)    2 variants (memorandum memoranda, memorandums, curriculum-curricula, curriculums[ ], formula-formulae, formulas, cherub-cherubim[], cherubs, focus-foci, focuses)

e)    Different meaning index-indexes-list of contents of books, indices-; genius-geniuses-men of talent, genii-, )

Plural in compound nouns

1.    The 2nd component takes the plural form as a rule (housewives, tooth-brushes)

2.    ful at the end of the word(handfuls, spoonfuls)

3.    man & woman the 1st components(men-servants, women-docters)

4.    ending man men(policeman-policemn) But:Germans, Romans(not compounds)

5.    prepositional noun phrase where the preposition is a linking element only the 1st noun takes the plural form(editors-in-chief- , mothers-in-law, commanders-in-chiefs-, coats-of-mail-, men-of-war- )

6.    compounds = conjunction as a linking element the plural is taken by the 2nd noun (gin-and-tonics)

7.    compound=noun+preposition/adverb/adjective-the 1st element-plural(passers-by, lookers-on-, courts-material-- , attorneys-general- )

8.    when the compound is a substantivized phrase which doesnt contain a noun, the last element plural(forget-me-nots-, breakdowns-, stand-bys-, grown-ups, close-ups- , pick-ups- , drop-outs-, go-betweens-)

Invariable nouns(cant change their number)

Singular invariable nouns

1.   Non-count

a)    Material(tea, sugar) But:cheeses-kind of cheese

b)    Abstract-music, anger

2.   Proper nouns The Thames, Henry

3.   Some ening-s

a)   news(10 oclock news), means-by this means( ), Gallows()

b)   diseases(mumps-, measles-, rickets-, shingles-)

c)   games(billiards, bowls-, dominoes, draughts)

d)   some proper nouns(Algiers, Athens, Brussels, Flanders, Marseilles, Naples, Wales, The United Nations, the United States.

e)   Nouns ending ics(classics, phonetics)

Plural invariable nouns

1.   Marked

a)   Names of toolsconsisting 2 equal parts(bellows-, binoculars, breeches-, braces- , flannels- , glasses, pants-, , pincers-, pliers-, , pyjamas, scales, scissors, shorts, spectacles-, suspenders-, tights-, tongs-, trousers, tweezers-)

b)   Miscellaneous nouns() (annals, antics, archives, arms, ashes, the Commons, contents, customs, customs-duty, customs-house, earnings, goods, goods train, greens, holidays, manners, minutes, outskirts, quarters, stairs, suds, surroundings, thanks, troops, wages, whereabouts, the Middle Ages)

c)   Some proper nouns (the East Indies, the West Indies, the Hibrides, the Highlands, the Midlands, the Netherlands)

2.   Unmarked(nouns of multitude & collective):

C: the family was large, m: the family were fond of their house.

Ways of showing partition

A piece of, a loaf of, a stick of, a bar of, a sheet of, lump, blade, block, strip, grain, pile, heap, word, item, article, fit

2. Category of Case of the noun

Shows the relation of the noun with other words in the sentence

Common case-zero inflexion

Genitive case-apostrophe s(s)

1.    Genitive


1)    [z]-after vowels & voiced consonans-negros, dogs

2)    [s]-after voiceless consonants-students

3)    [iz]-after sibilants()- princes, judges; Marxs ideas

4)    zero ending-girls, boys

a)    with regular plural nouns(boys)

b)    greek nouns in s(Socrates wife, Xerxes()

c)    other names: 2 variants Burns & Burnss poems

Compound nouns-s joined to the final component(the editor-in chiefs office)

Group genitive(when s can be joined)

1.    2 persons possess or are related to smth they have in common(mom & dads room, John & Marys car)

2.    to a more extensive phrase which may even contain a clause(the Duke of Norfolks sister, the secretary of states room, the man I saw yesterdays son)

3.    to a noun(pronoun)+a pronoun group(someone elses benefit)

4.    to a group ending in a numeral(in an hour or twos time)

The main meaning of the genitive case-possession, Possessive case, main modifications:

1.    the idea of belonging: Johns coat

2.    Different kinds of relations:

a)    Relation of the whole to its part(Jons leg)

b)    Personal or social relations(Johns wife)

3.    subjective relations(The doctors arrival, the Chekhovs book)

4.   authorship(Byrons poem)

5.   objective relations(Johns arrest-he was arrested)

6.   measure(an hours trip, a miles distance)

s lost the meaning of possession (womans work, idiots smile, womens college, angels eyes)

The use of genitive case & its equivalent of-phrase

1)    with nouns denoting persons & animals(Johns idea, swalows nest). With other nouns-of+noun phrase

2)    with nouns denoting time & distance(minute, moment, year & substantivized adverbs - today)todays papers-, the papers of today- )

3)    with the names of countries & towns(Britains national museum, Canadas population)

4)    with the names of newspapers denoting different kinds of organizations(companys plan, Guardians analysis, Geographical Societys gold medal)

5)    with the nouns world, nation, country, city, town(the nations health)

6)    with the nouns ship, boat, car(ships crew)

7)    with nouns denoting planets(sun, moon, earth)(this earths life)

8)    set expressions: to one hearts content(desire), at deaths door, at arms length, out of harms way, a hairs breadth, a needles eye, at a stones throe, to move at a snails pace, at the waters edge

The syntactical function of the genitive attribute. Its always used as a premodifier & sometimes called the depend genitive.

The absolute genitive when the genitive case is not followed by the headword & when it stands for the whole noun phrase:

It is used:

1)    to avoid repetition(our house is better than Marys(house))

2)    after the preposition of(an old frend of my mothers)

3)    to denote shops(the grocers, the bakers)

4)    saints nameSt Pauls(cathedral)

5)    places of residence(at my uncles, at Timothys)

Double genitive

1)    My mothers fathers people

2)    The boys half-hours run


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