Экология: Economic methods of protection environment, Реферат


Ivanov Maxim

From 8B

Economic methods of protection environment


Environmental standards

Thinking about the environment, we can not say about the environmental standards. The distinction that separates this from-being of our planet from environmental disaster on so thin that it should not be an "ecology in the public, but the extent of deviation of environmental characteristics of the habitat values of the minimum non-essential to living life planet. Today, these values are elevated to the rank of mandatory environmental standards.

Environmental quality standards set legally binding limits on pollution or adverse effects, which should not be exceeded in the environment or its components. These standards were first used in the U.S. in the early 70-ies in the federal laws on air quality and water quality. In accordance with Act 1970 of the number of air standards that are imposed at the state level to plan activities tries to comply with national air quality standards (NSKV) and subject to the of existing and new sources of air pollution. In an amendment paper in 1977 on the law NSKV divided into primary and secondary. Primary set the maximum permissible amount (MAC) chemicals-substances in the atmosphere in order to protect the health of the population, secondary impose the maximum permissible levels of pollution, (remote), sufficient to protect the environment and "public welfare" from the real and potential effects of pollution . Standards of quality of the environment there and in the countries of Eastern Europe, but not observed due to the lack of the relevant legislative frameworks. From countries outside Western Europe in the last few years they have been introduced, deny in Germany and Denmark. Traditional environmental quality standards are the standards of air quality and water, noise and vibration, unpleasant smells.

Commercial standards - standards for products normally but nationwide, that can be specified:

- Limiting the levels of pollutants or adverse effects in the product;

- Properties and characteristics of construction products;

- How to use.

Commercial standards used to ban or curtail the production of environmentally harmful output. If necessary, they also include the rules of testing, packaging and labeling products.

Technological standards are a professional tsifikatsii ecological nature of media Technology and equipment of technological processes etc. They may be the construction and maintenance.

Industry in many countries, dissatisfied with the fact that strict economic laws and regulations place them at a disadvantage in competition with foreign firms, which face a more lenient regulation. Such an argument is given in respect of environmental taxes and charges.

These statements, however, does not fully correspond to the reality. Long-term benefits are often re-reveshivaet short-term lack of competitiveness.

The original practice was formed in Japan, where the controls are oriented on the development of primarily health standards, supplemented by restrictions of emissions for certain industries and types of production. Environmental standards are developed in the so-called public negotiations between industrial firms and local authorities. In Finland, there is also no uniform system of environmental standards for emissions. Instead, each region has the right to negotiate with the builders and to reach agreement on an acceptable environmental impact.

There is another kind of standards - standards "interregional diffusion, which determine the amount of pollutants emanating from the region for a certain period of time.

Firms in Japan, Germany, Sweden and other countries are already responding to higher energy prices, the existing environmental standards and their future more stringent manufacturing processes more efficient and more environmentally friendly products.

Monitoring of environmental environment

To provide objective information of the creation, implementation and evaluation of environmental policy requires environmental monitoring system. Moreover, in some countries such as Japan, each governing law requires Administrative bodies to oversee the permanent-pollution.

Environmental monitoring can be used in the following phases of environmental policy:

1) Evaluation of a strategy to test the possibility of unintended consequences in the future.

2) Activities to reduce pollution of the environment, for example:

- Short-term monitoring at a disastrously over-pollution to protect human health;

- Monitoring compliance with emission standards and the quality of the environment;

- Monitoring in the integrated assessment of environmental impacts.

3) Identify emerging issues and creating policies to address them.

The distribution of roles in environmental monitoring of the national government, state (regional) and local authorities depends on the structure of institutes in each country. Typically, monitoring is carried out by local authorities. They have to monitor on-vat emissions and respond to the excess of the limits and other permit conditions, and if the activity is carried out without the required permit. If permission is not provided, but local authorities must verify whether the activities in accordance with the special requirements of legislation in this field.

Private agencies and companies are also involved in many cases, the monitoring scheme. This is mainly as part of the "polluter pays" principle. It is obvious that the first step in controlling pollution is the knowledge of the type and amount of pollutant emissions. Therefore, firms engaged in monitoring their own emissions in order to assess compliance with their permits or licenses and regulatory (standard) state of the environment in the vicinity of the object.

Economic regulation of protection environment

Many professionals, including lawyers, in developed countries consider environmental issues as a matter of fact the economic problems. This position is consistent with that currently in many countries and particularly in the U.S. there is the weakening of the administrative re-gulirovaniya economy. Economic methods of targeted, clearly define the requirements for managed objects that, but in contrast to the administrative commands are being taken into account that the facilities management deliberately set themselves goals and just as consciously strive to achieve. Such goals - an important feature otlichitel loss management in the social and economic-based systems. Therefore, the essence of economic methods of organization of the managed objects through the creation of the benefits of consumption. These methods of economic management is different from the stimulate that provides encouragement and sanction of the non-economic nature.

The role of economic instruments is to establish governance arrangements that promote sredoohrannuyu activities and seek ways to minimize the economic costs incurred by society to achieve same-Laem state of the environment and its individual components ponentov.

Among the economic instruments of environmental management include:

Payments or taxes for the use of natural resources;

- Compensation payments for disposal of natural resources from the purposeful use of or deterioration of quality due to industrial activities;

- Charges or taxes on emissions of polluting ve-societies to the environment;

- An additional tax on business profits, you are allowed to environmentally-harmful products, or apply-ing ecologically dangerous technology.

All of these purely economic instruments are used by Observing environmental standards, the most effective way.

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