Психология: Positive and negative values of conformism, Реферат


1. Conformism, conformal behavior conformality

2. The study conformism

3. Positive and negative values

List of sources used

conformism adaptation power subordination

1. Conformism, conformal behavior conformality

Personality in its public nature is active, particularly on their interests. But on the requirements of others dealing with activity much more difficult. Under the influence of society, state, traditions, public opinion, authority of elders, social group or its leader, under direct or indirect pressure from other people's personality can control its activity, its direct channel to the requirements of those entities or public institutions to adapt some of their interests the interests of others, to become compliant, ductility and even humble, that is passive to take the interests of other life position. This form of expression of individual positions, there is passivity, nekrytychnist, pliability, prystosovnytstvo about the impact on her environment, called conformism.

Effect of group most often sold through conformism as a phenomenon of group pressure. Conformism is continually in small groups to work in groups of interest in families and affects the individual life settings and change behavior.

At the level of everyday consciousness, this concept is positive, negative and neutral value.

Conformism (Latin conformis - like, respectively) - passive acceptance prystosovnytske group standards of behavior, the indisputable recognition of existing orders, rules and regulations, unconditional worship of the authorities.

This interpretation covers various conformism, though outwardly similar, phenomena: - the lack of a person's own views, beliefs, character weakness, prystosovnytstvo - uniformity in behavior, with the consent of the individual views, norms, values of most people who surround him - the result of pressure group norms on individual who as a result of this pressure begins to act, think, feel the same way as other members of the group.

Conformism can express:

1) prystosovnytske attitude to other requirements, of course trustworthy, strong personality (personality-authors of conformism and Packaging);

2) the same treatment to the requirements of large, medium or small social group to which it belongs (intragroup conformity);

3) the same treatment to the requirements of society, its institutions, the dominant social groups, government (public or social conformity). Often to refer to different manifestations of the phenomenon of conformism use the term "conformal behavior" and "conformism". Because conformity is broader socio-psychological phenomenon, in most case studies referred Conformal behavior and conformism. The contents of these concepts points to a purely psychological characteristics of positions regarding the individual positions of the group: he accepts or rejects the group recognized norms, standards, values, properties.

Conformal (Latin conformis - like) behavior - human action, which is manifested in its compliance of real or perceived pressure groups to change the settings and actions according to position the community to which she is involved.

The response of the individual to group pressure can be verbal and behavioral. For social psychology is important, or changing opinion of an individual because of what he saw something in (or made changes in his cognitive structure), or outside it only shows changes, and actually own opinion has not changed.

Conformism - a tendency of an individual subject to the opinion of the majority group, real or imagined group pressure.

Conformism shows where conflict of opinion between the person and the position of the group. Tag it is to change attitudes and behavior of an individual under the terms of the majority. By essentially conformality can be external (individual only outside opinion demonstrates conquering group, continuing to do it internally resistance) and internal (real conversion of individual installations of the primary position of the individual in favor of the group, most assimilation of his thoughts). Depending on the type of person group is the negativism - resistance to group pressure to demonstrate behaviors or opinions that contradict the position of the group. Often the concept of "negativism" is used in the sense that the concept and "nonconformism. Sometimes it separates content, describing the negativism as demonstration of behavior or thought contrary to the views of the majority, regardless of whether this majority is right, and nonconformism - as a demonstration of thought or behavior, based on their experience, regardless of the opinions or behavior of most group . As the antithesis conformism use the term "nonconformnist" (Latin for non - not, conformis - like, respectively) - complete disagreement, violation of any norms and values of the group. Tag it considered the objection claims, expectations, rules, orders society. However, interpretation nonconformism not known as an alternative, and one of the manifestations of conformism. Measure of human caused conformism and depends

First, of significance for her attitude surrounding - how important it is for her, the lower level of conformism;

Second, the authority of those who express the various views in the group - the higher their status and authority for the group, the higher conformality members of the group;

Thirdly, conformism depends on the number of people expressing one or another position of their unanimity;- fourthly, the measure is determined conformism age and gender rights - women in general more conformal than men, and children - than older adults.

In fact, comfort - something controversial, primarily because accommodating the individual does not always indicate real change in his perception.

There are two variants of individual behavior:

- That is, when opinion is changing as a result of individual belief in something;

- Motivated - if he shows changes.

There are three levels of conformal human behavior:

- submission (impact group has an external nature, duration conformal behavior is limited to a particular situation);

- Identification (exists in two forms, one can completely or partially assimilate themselves to other group members or participants of interaction expected from each specific behavior, trying to justify these mutual expectations);

- internalization (related to the value of the person) in this situation, human behavior is relatively independent of external influences, because the views or opinions of others joined in the value system of the person.

Conformism is also considered as a function of three types of influence.

First, an information conformality of the group, where opinions of the group is considered adequate reflection of reality.

Second, normative conformism of the group when a person is interested to estimate the group.

Thirdly, normative conformism of the experimenter. It arises when the interests of the guinea focused primarily on assessment of the no group, and experimenter.

2. The study conformism

Social psychology for several decades studying the problem of conformism. In the mid 30' s of XX century. American Psychologist Muzafer Sheriff investigated in vitro the formation of group norms and their impact on people using so-called avtokinetychnyy effect (optical illusion of movement of the fixed points of light in a dark visual field). The result of this and similar experiments have led to the following conclusions: - The individual uncertainty by matching and comparing their own views on others, inclined to agree, as a rule, with the majority to adapt to it - a common reference system, formed in the presence of others continues to influence the views and opinions of the individual, even without this source of influence. M. Cherif not actually researched conformism. The objective was to study the process of forming social norms in a laboratory, and clarify various aspects naviyuvanosti rights. In the early 50' s of XX century. American researcher Solomon Ash drew attention to the problem of group pressure, using a method "reasonably groups. A considerable intensification of research and debate about the nature of conformism as a social phenomenon that took place in the coming decades, social psychology has enriched many concrete conclusions. In particular it was found that a high degree of conformism is the result of underdeveloped intellect, low self and others. It was then concluded that a person can be a conformist or a nonconformist. So there are two options for treatment of personality to the group opinion: or disagreement, alienation, or full acceptance of it. Also alleged that the degree of conformism depends on the situation, the composition and structure of the group. However, these factors have not been elucidated (presumably because of the nature of laboratory groups that are not allowed to consider the significance for the individual group thought). Negative role played by abstraction and participating in the experiment that revealed the lack of information on their individual characteristics, social characteristics (values, beliefs, etc.). And most model variations of behavior was somewhat simplistic, since it takes into account only two types: conformal and demonstrate the non. In fact, real life in a group may be associated with the third type of behavior, based on a conscious recognition of individual codes and standards groups. Despite these shortcomings, Asha S. technique was used in subsequent experiments, as many scientists consider it a model of scientific creativity, unequivocally recognizing its humanistic orientation. Further investigation konkretyzuvaly factors underlying conformal behavior, influencing it and determine the level of conformism. This - a conflict (real, imaginary) between the individual and group; pressure (influence) groups through evaluation, offensive jokes, etc. Most unanimity, solidarity groups, especially the situation, especially the relationship of individuals and groups, especially the response to pressure groups; tender and age characteristics, individual characteristics of the individual, social and cultural features, the significance of the situation for the individual and others. American social psychologist Morton Deutsch and Harold Gerard discovered and described the kinds of normative and informational influence on a group of individuals.

Regulatory impact on an individual associated with group norms. The point is that most of exerting pressure, and her opinion is seen as representative of the group norm. Regulatory requirements surrounding the group of people from early childhood: it is learned follow group norms and respect them.

Information on the impact of the individual involves changing individual positions on the group due to the fact that an individual applies to the group as a source of information. If the regulatory impact of changing the system of interpersonal relationships, the information - determines aspirations are more or less adequate assessment of reality.

Foreign researchers Festinher L., M. Deutsch and H. Gerard are two types of conformal behavior:

• external subordination, that is the conscious adaptation to the opinions of a group. Thus there are two well-being of the individual:

1) submission is accompanied by an acute internal conflict;

2) adaptation occurs without any conspicuous internal conflict;

• internal subordination, when individuals perceive the opinion of the group as its own and follows them outside. Use the following types of domestic subordination:

1) making thoughtless wrong opinions of a group on a "majority is always right";

2) the adoption of the group, but the use of your logic explanation of choice.

3. Positive and negative values

Conformal person show weaker intellect than independent, they are more characteristic of dogmatism, stereotype thinking, unclear thoughts and utterances. Human motivation and emotional functions of conformal entity characterized by insufficient strength of character, inability to control oneself in stressful situations. In the field of consciousness, they suffer from inferiority complex, and exhibit relations with other authoritarianism, concerns the affairs of others. Conformism as a measure of subordination rights group norms and requirements is not a feature of personality, interpersonal relations and property related to the level of the group, the nature of its activities, the situation in the presence of a group of individuals that deviate from the general opinion, and others. Many researchers believe conformism negative phenomenon, which is characterized by a conscious adaptation to reality even prystosovnytstvo. their estimates based on the belief that conformism are inherently not as a psychological phenomenon, as ethical.

But opponents argue that conformism has important functions in the process of socialization of personality, its integration into the social community. Quite peculiar views expressed on the phenomenon of conformism, which, unlike conformism, some scientists consider valuable, ie it is beyond valuation. An important difference from conformism conformism they see that conformism can manifest not only at the level of individual differences, but on the level of group situation. Known also attempts to interpret the conformality to group norms in some cases positive, in others - as a negative factor in the functioning of the group. According to the supporters of this view, sometimes even conformism can stimulate altruistic behavior or behavior that is consistent with the moral standards of the individual. However, adoption of group norms to pursue private gain qualifies as prystosovnytstvo. In such circumstances conformality causes various adverse effects.

Thus, the conformality to group norms in some situations a positive factor, while others - negative. Compliance with certain established standards of conduct is important, and sometimes just need for effective group action. Another thing, when the agreement with the norms of the group assuming the character of extracting personal gain and becomes prystosovnytstvo regulatory pressure (influence) is entering a difficult interaction with the opportunities and resources that are available to the minority group.

List of sources used

1) N. Kornev Social Psychology: Handbook for students. Education. teach. bookmark. - K.: BV, 1995. - 303 sec.

2) Lembryk - Orban, L. E. Social psychology: in two books: the textbook for university students. - K.: Lybid, 2004 - Book. 1: Personality and Social Psychology communication. - 2004. – 573 p.

3) Truhin IA Social psychology of communication: Manual. - K.: textbooks, 2005. - 335 sec.

4) VT System Ciba social psychology: a manual. - K.: textbooks, 2006. - 327 sec.

Еще из раздела Психология:

 Поиск рефератов
- Дорогая, сегодня такой праздник, поэтому можно меня с работы чуть-чуть попозже принесут?
bigmir)net TOP 100